Sunday, October 20, 2019

Cause and effect

OK, now we’re getting into something fun, the cause and effect essay. The cause and effect essay will train you to call and respond. For example, if you’re arguing about why cigarettes are detrimental to health, you can’t just say cigarettes cause lung cancer and move on to the next subject. You must respond to that statement and tell the reader why cigarettes cause lung cancer: Call-Response. That said, the most important members of the who, what, when, where, why gang are what and why, and these are the two points we deal with most in cause and effect essays. The overlying message of your essay will be one huge â€Å"why† (cause) followed by one huge â€Å"what† (effect). We are in the world of relationships, how one thing affects another thing. Your thesis will concentrate on the effect, the consequences of the cause. So we’re actually going to work back in time from effect to cause; therefore, we are not dealing with chronological order here but with the emphatic order or order of importance. Yes, the cause does lead to the effect, but the effect is the main point of your thesis with the cause, your argument. Let’s look at a simple example: By drinking enough martinis, I will soon destroy my liver. Cause (why): By drinking enough martinis Effect (what): I will soon destroy my liver See? Drinking martinis answers â€Å"why,† and â€Å"what â€Å"is answered by my soon-to-be destroyed liver. So the actual topic of your essay is the martini. Your opinion or slant on the topic: drink enough of them and you will destroy your liver. So your plan of development or three points of argument will be based on reasons â€Å"why† drinking martinis destroys the liver. You must prove that the cause leads to the effect. Now don’t be fooled by a post hoc fallacy. The American Heritage Dictionary defines post hoc as â€Å"in or of the form of an argument in which one event is asserted to be the cause of a later event simply by the virtue of having happened earlier. † The cause must yield the effect. Because you threw salt over your shoulder before an airplane flight and then had a safe flight, there is no evidence that the salt over the shoulder is the reason your flight was safe. Capish? You MUST back up your claim with a good argument and references that back up your argument. Here are some essential rules for this essay: You must offer at least two works cited You must have at least one quotation from our readings, properly cited. Your essay must be typed in proper MLA format The checklists and outline in this packet must be filled out and handed in You will hand in early rough drafts with your essay You will read, or have another student read, your opening paragraph to the class. *Please see the â€Å"Checklist for Required Work†: for more on this, later in this handout. Here is your essay prompt: What incident, event, or occurrence happened in your life that made you realize you are different from other people? Essay Review: What is expected in the basic essay. Introductory Paragraph Introduction Plan of development: points 1. 2. 3 Thesis Statement The introduction must attract the reader. The plan of development is a list of points that support the thesis. The points are offered in the order they are given. Thesis: the main idea in two parts: topic and your opinion. First Supporting Paragraph Topic sentence (point 1) Specific evidence The topic sentence is the first supporting point for your thesis, and the specific evidence delves into you topic sentence Second Supporting Paragraph Topic sentence (point 2) Specific evidence The topic sentence advances the second supporting point for your thesis, and the specific evidence develops that point. Third Supporting Paragraph Topic sentence (point 3) Specific evidence The topic sentence advances the third supporting point for your thesis, and the specific evidence develops that point. Concluding Paragraph Summary, conclusion or both A summary is a broad restatement of the thesis and its main points. A Conclusion is a final thought or tow stemming from the subject of the paper. Common Methods of Introduction. 1. Broad Statement: Using factory work as an example, you might start out by saying the following: Working in a factory might be one of the worst jobs. And then you go into the specific factory that you’re writing about, for example, an egg factory. 2. Contrast: Start with an idea that is the opposite of the one you will develop: working in an office is a nice, clean job. You have comfortable chairs, a desk, a computer, a cup of coffee nearby, but working in a factory does not have the niceties found in an office. 3. Relevance: What makes your topic special? Convince the reader that the topic applies to them or is important. So many of our ancestors, when they first came to this country, found themselves working in factories. 4. Anecdote: An interesting short story that coaxes the reader into the world of your essay. The story should be related to your thesis. I once met a man named Victor who was missing two of his fingers. Victor told me that he lost his fingers because of an accident at work. He caught his hand in the wheels of a conveyor belt at the egg factory where he worked. 5. Quotation: Quote something from your research, or find a dictionary quote that relates to your topic: â€Å"Perhaps it seemed to me,† Wrote Henry David Thoreau, â€Å"that I had several more lives to live, and could not spare any time for that one† (342). This is how I felt after working in an egg factory for two years. I had other lives to live. I had wasted enough of my life here. Concluding Paragraph The concluding paragraph should summarize the essay by restating the thesis and even restating the main supporting points. Also, the conclusion brings your paper to a graceful end, leaving the reader with a final thought on the subject. Here is where you get to offer your opinion on the subject. Three Ways to Conclude You Paper using La Jolla Shores (a local beach) as an example. 1. End with a summary or final thought: La Jolla Shores, then, is one of the most inviting beaches in San Diego. The beaches there are wider, cleaner, and safer. It is not surprising that a growing number of San Diegans are traveling to La Jolla Shores to experience this great beach. 2. A thought-provoking question: Appeal to the reader that your subject is bigger than your essay. Comment on any one of these: The future Which choice should be made Why is your subject important Wouldn’t La Jolla Shores be the beach of choice for anyone who wants to experience an enjoyable day by the ocean? 3. A prediction or recommendation Even with its growing popularity, La Jolla Shores will always be the most pleasant beach experiences San Diego has to offer. Outline Form for Essays

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