Wednesday, July 31, 2019
The current eraÃ¢â¬â¢s education is known to be defined by students themselves, including their academic success, the value of educators and instructional quality in America, learning standards adopted by each individual state, anxiety, the role played by parents outside of a school setting, and much more. Most Americans believe that studentÃ¢â¬â¢s standardized test scores are the only legitimate indicator of a schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s efficiency. Since 1965, when the United States Elementary and Secondary Education Act became a law, standardized testing has been used to evaluate American public schools. The ultimate goal of standardized testing is to examine how well teachers are preparing students and to improve student achievement. Some people would argue that standardized testing accomplishes the goal of examining educators, allowing them to better their skills for the future, while others would argue that the idea of standardized testing damages the educational system altogether. The leading debate that concerns most, but is brushed off by many, is whether the success of standardized testing should be used to indicate a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s, teacher, and/or schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s capabilities. The key objective of the American educational system is for every student to graduate from high school, college and career ready. In 1959, when Everet Lindquist launched the _American College Test_ (ACT), it was Ã¢â¬Å"designed as a test of studentÃ¢â¬â¢s general educational development and could be used with other criteria to predict student success at the college level.Ã¢â¬ After the launching of this well-known assessment, testing was being put in use in many educational settings. In 1954, as a part of President Lyndon B. JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s, _Ã¢â¬ WAR ON POVERTYÃ¢â¬ _ , the _Elementary and Secondary Education Act_Ã _(ESEA)_ was introduced. This act was reauthorized in 2001, which is now known as _No Child Left Behind_ _(NCLB)_ . This reauthorized act Ã¢â¬Å"requires states to develop assessments in basic skills. States must give assessments to all students at select grade levels in order to receive federal school funding.Ã¢â¬ Race to the Top was introduced by President Barack Obama in 2012, which is a school district competition across the United States. This initiative was put forth to raise standards, with the goal of college and career readiness. In addition, Race to the Top has lead states to develop Ã¢â¬Å"rigorous standards and better assessmentsÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"support teachers and school leaders to become more effectiveÃ¢â¬ , and provide intervention for low performing schools. (Whitehouse.gov) Now that Race to the Top has become worldwide, it has become a controversial topic. Civil Rights organizations have argued that Ã¢â¬Å"federal funding should be based on need, not competition.Ã¢â¬ As a result of the Race, teachers will be evaluated in relation to their students test scores. In a Huffington Post, updated in 2011, research professor and author Diane Ravitch stated that Ã¢â¬Å"it will make the current standardized test of basic skills more important than ever, and even more time and resources will be devoted to raising scores on these tests.Ã¢â¬ The new era of Race to the Top will cause the importance of standardized testing to increase, and the demand for privately managed charter schools to increase. In June of 2010, Ã¢â¬Å"North Carolina adopted the Common Core State Standards in K-12 Mathematics and K-12 English Language Arts.Ã¢â¬ Beginning in 2012-13, the course of study was implemented in public schools across the state. In conjunction with these standards, Ã¢â¬Å"common examsÃ¢â¬ were put into effect. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ Common examsÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"Measures of student learningÃ¢â¬ refers to new assessments being developed to measure teacher effectiveness.Ã¢â¬ A teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s effectiveness can reflect on how well a student performs on his or her exams. Since teachers are not told what is on exams or standardized tests such as this, they must prepare their students based on the standards put forth by the state and assume it will be the same material when testing. A common exam is Ã¢â¬Å"given in classes where students are not given an end of grade or end of course testsÃ¢â¬ and is Ã¢â¬Å"created by local educators and the North CarolinaÃ Department of Public Instruction to show the impact of teacher performance on student learning.Ã¢â¬ The success of these standardized tests Ã¢â¬Å"provides students with feedback on their knowledge and skillsÃ¢â¬ (Astro.Temple.edu). On the other hand, it Ã¢â¬Å"motivates teachers to identify their areas of strength and weakness in teaching plans so that they can reconstruct themÃ¢â¬ (Astro.Temple.edu). This forms a relationship between teacher performance and student learning. On the other hand, many parents, students, as well as educators believe that standardized testing isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a great indication on a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge. Standardized testing evaluates a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s performance in one day, excluding any external factors. Many teachers are known to Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ teach to the testÃ¢â¬ which can hinder a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s overall learning potentialÃ¢â¬ (Office of Work/Life Columbia University). There are many students who Ã¢â¬Å"are smart and understand the content, but it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t show on the test. Many students develop test anxiety which hinders performanceÃ¢â¬ (Office of Work/Life Columbia University). For federal funding, schools depend on their studentÃ¢â¬â¢s to perform well. Ã¢â¬Å"Competition among schoolsÃ¢â¬ can sometimes take place (Office of Work/Life Columbia University). This could be a hard factor to overcome, when schools have exceptional and special education students. Special education include Ã¢â¬Å"individual or small group instruction, curriculum or teaching modifications, assistive technology, transition services and other specialized services such as physical, occupational, and speech therapyÃ¢â¬ (CHADD: National Resource Center on ADHD). Students that are considered Ã¢â¬Å"exceptionalÃ¢â¬ are required to take the same standardized test as student without learning restrictions, so how exactly is someone at a lower level given such high standards? The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, enacted in 1990 and reauthorized in 1997 and 2004, was designed to Ã¢â¬Å"ensure services to children with disabilities throughout the nationÃ¢â¬ (idea.ed.gov US Department of Education). This was designed to ensure that all student, ages 3-21, receive appropriate education regardless of any disability. In addition to this, theÃ disability they are diagnosed with must Ã¢â¬Å"affect his or her educational performance and must need special education in order to receive an appropriate educationÃ¢â¬ (CHADD: National Resource Center on ADHD). Ã¢â¬Å"Many children in exceptional childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s programs have physical, mental, or social disabilities. In North Carolina, these academically gifted children are classified as EC, because they have different educational needs than the average childÃ¢â¬ (Exceptional Children UNC School of Education). Since No Child Left Behind was passed, Ã¢â¬Å"students with disabilities must be included in state testing and assessed against the same standard of proficiency as other students to determine whether schools are making the required Ã¢â¬Å"adequate yearly progressÃ¢â¬ towards goals for academic proficiency. The regular assessment is given to students with special needs, and they are given appropriate accommodations. Appropriate accommodations include extra time to take the test, larger print, a quiet room, Braille, having the instructions repeated periodically, or more breaks than normally allowedÃ¢â¬ (Boehner 10). In addition to the special benefits granted, an Individualized Education Program, (IEP), is designed for each child with a disability. Students under this program have a customized Ã¢â¬Å"learning planÃ¢â¬ on how they will be evaluated and not whether they will be evaluated. Ã¢â¬Å"Results from the National Assessment of Educational Progress, also known as a NationÃ¢â¬â¢s Report Card, standardized test, which is used and measured the same in all states, provide useful information on the achievement and progress of students with disabilities. The results from the NationÃ¢â¬â¢s Report Card show progress, as well as gaps, between students with disabilities and nondisabled studentsÃ¢â¬ (Aron and Loprest 112-113).
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
The BohrÃ¢â¬â¢s Atomic Model | Argumentative Essay| shhss| In 1913, a Danish physicist named Niels BohrÃ put Rutherford's findings together with the observed spectra to come up with a new model of the atom in a real leap of intuition. I believe that the BohrÃ¢â¬â¢s model of atom explains well about the atomic theory, because in his experiments it is shown and explained the structure of an atom. His famous suggestion is about that the electrons orbit around the nucleus of an atom. Bohr experimented with atomic spectrum that proved his suggestion.The BohrÃ¢â¬â¢s experiments with atomic spectra explained how each element had a unique spectrum and theÃ wavelengthÃ of each line within a spectrum had a specific energy. When atoms in the gas tubes absorbed the energy from the electric current, the electrons became excited and jumped from low energy levels (close to the nucleus) to high energy levels (farther out from the nucleus). The excited electrons would fall back to their o riginal levels and emit energy as light. Because there were specific differences between the energy levels, only specific wavelengths of light were seen in the spectrum.BohrÃ¢â¬â¢s Periodic behavior of elements described how did elements with similar properties had similar atomic spectra. Bohr also explained that Each electron orbit of the same size or energy (shell) could only hold so many electrons. For example, the first shell could hold two electrons, the second could hold eight electrons, the third could hold 18 electrons, the fourth 32 and so on until reaching the seventh. When one shell was filled, electrons were found at higher levels. Chemical properties were based on the number of electrons in the outermost shell.Elements with full outer shells do not react. Other elements take or give up electrons to get a full outer shell. As it turns out, Bohr's model is also useful for explaining the behavior ofÃ lasers, although these devices were not invented until the middle of the 20th century. Bohr's model was the model that made a great leap in sciences until new discoveries were made. This model was proposed in 1913 by Niels Bohr and was really an expansion on the Rutherford model of 1911. The Rutherford model had several flaws that the Bohr model overcame.
Monday, July 29, 2019
In the business world, it is seen that outsourcing is the major problem, mainly when it includes cheap labor that is offered in many developing countries.Ã It is analyzed that there are many businesses that have embarked on this exercise with the motive of earning profits, that enhances the overall satisfaction level of the shareholders and give assurance of the success in the future. There are many individuals who are claiming that it is ethical practice and also others are claiming that the practice is not considered as moral. This argument does not take into consideration the method of outsourcing but consider the ethical issues that are surrounded by the process of outsourcing. Outsourcing of cheap overseas labor has b e a corporate process but the practice has raised many questions related whether the practice is immoral or not (Gerbl, McIvor, Loane & Humphreys, 2015).Ã Ã In this paper, the analysis will be made by taking into consideration both the positive and negative facets of the practice. By taking into consideration ethical opinion, there are many advices opposing the use of overseas cheap labor. One of the argument states that the panies make profits from the use of cheap labor and the profits are reserved by the rich class people, while the people belong from middle class lose their purchasing power and also high taxes are paid by them. There are various individuals who notice government's distribution of economic wealth with negative opinions. The corporate practices considered by the organizations are related to contributing to the economic difference will be taken in a negative way by the public. It is analyzed that overseas employees are not able to make any contribution to the security which is socially related and tax rate of any country. According to Kline (2010), the high tax rate achieved from the business profits cannot justified for the overall amount that the government lose just because of the i e taxes.Ã Negativity is created in the residents due to the loss of various opportunities related with the jobs.Ã If the cheap overseas labor is used then it disregards the munity and the workers who assisted the organization to achieve success in the market (Poutanen & Kovalainen, 2017).Ã Ã So, it is evaluated that success of the organization is related to profits and also concerned to develop the munity.Ã If cheap overseas labor is taken into consideration than it affects the job opportunities for the individuals that are available and also weaken the economy of the developing nations (Bevan, Brinkley, Cooper & Bajorek, 2018).Ã For instance: If working criteria of the individual increases than extra cash is available that can be spent on products, which suggests that extra jobs can be formed to consid er the overall demand of the products in the market.Ã Therefore, by taking into consideration overseas cheap labor by American organizations can affect the economy cycle of the country. It is analyzed that those who are stating that use of overseas cheap labor is right, for them it is important to consider that, at the time of manufacturing of goods by using overseas cheap labor it is important to import more products than manufacturing it on a domestic platform.Ã This argument states that product should be in the country where there is cheap labor as this is one of the best strategies that the pany should consider so that profits can be enhanced and also the satisfaction level of the stakeholders can be maximized. Advocates of outsourcing cheap labor by the organizations maintain the petitive advantage by focusing on products that can help to enhance the overall profitability.Ã The argument is that organizations have the goal of earning cash by producing goods and selling them to the customers at a low cost (Wuyts, Rindfleisch & Citrin, 2015).Ã Ã In this way, if overseas labor is used then there can be a difference in the overall cost. This cost difference that takes place helps the organizations to achieve overall goals and objectives and also the cheap labor that is used can be justified (Oshri, Kotlarsky & Willcocks, 2015).Ã For instance:Ã US organizations should give petition in a global economy which states that the organizations are permitted to recruit worldwide. petitive advantage is important and one of the best strategies that US organizations should adopt is cheap overseas labor. The next argument that is in support of the panies considering cheap labor overseas is due of the enhancing want of corporate social responsibility which states that many organizations are offering service to individuals in developing nations. Use of cheap labor plays a great role in offering job opportunities for the individuals in developing countries (Beam, 2016).Ã It is also seen that with the use of overseas labor supports American organizations to shape the middle class in the developing nations. Outsourcing cheap labor will help the Americans to grow into a country including of consultants and entrepreneurs.Ã Outsourcing overseas labor is related to partnership and not with theft.Ã Corporations who take into consideration the usage of cheap overseas labors acts in the interest of the customers (Lester, 2018). For example: To pay more to the US workers as linked to the foreign labors is not beneficial to the local economy. Workers always want that the earnings should b e high. It is ethical to provide employment to the people who are existing in developing nations rather than individuals existing in First world nation where jobs are availed. So, from the argument, it is analyzed that the use of cheap labor by the panies can give an advantage to the customers and shareholders at the expense of the employees.Ã An Argument is made in which support point is that use of cheap labor is not ethical from the point that outsourcing cheap overseas labor can give more expense to the foreign economies.Ã The argument is elevated to assist the point that using cheap overseas labor is ethical by taking into consideration corporate social responsibility.Ã Therefore, ethical problems arise related to how organizations should consider the cheap labor like inadequate working conditions and poor wages to the employees. Beam, E. A. (2016). Do job fairs matter? experimental evidence on the impact of job-fair attendance.Ã Journal of Development Economics,Ã 120, 32-40. Bevan, S., Brinkley, I., Cooper, C., & Bajorek, Z. (2018).Ã 21st Century Workforces and Workplaces: The Challenges and Opportunities for Future Work Practices and Labour Markets. Bloomsbury Publishing. Gerbl, M., McIvor, R., Loane, S., & Humphreys, P. (2015). A multi-theory approach to understanding the business process outsourcing decision.Ã Journal of World Business,Ã 50(3), 505-518. Kline, J. (2010).Ã Ethics for International Business: Decision-Making in a Global Political Economy.Ã New York: Routledge. Lester, M. (2018). The Creation and Disruption of Innovation? Key Developments in Innovation as Concept, Theory, Research and Practice. InÃ Innovation in the Asia PacificÃ (pp. 271-328). Springer, Singapore. Oshri, I., Kotlarsky, J., & Willcocks, L. P. (2015).Ã The Handbook of Global Outsourcing and Offshoring 3rd Edition. Springer. Poutanen, S., & Kovalainen, A. (2017). New Economy, Platform Economy and Gender. InÃ Gender and Innovation in the New EconomyÃ (pp. 47-96). Palgrave Macmillan, New York. Wuyts, S., Rindfleisch, A., & Citrin, A. (2015). Outsourcing customer support: The role of provider customer focus.Ã Journal of Operations Management ,Ã 35, 40-55. Looking for an answer 'who will do my essay for cheap',
Relationship between democracy and economic development in Latin America - Essay Example There seems to be both a negative and positive impact of democracy on economic development in Latin America. Therefore, it can be said that there exists a relationship between democracy and economic development in Latin America. It is difficult to generalise the effect of democracy on economic development on whole of Latin America. Different countries in the region have had different experiences with respect to democracy. Democracy has numerous indirect and favourable effects/impacts on political stability, inflation, levels of economic freedom, human capital, civil liberties, rule of law, etc. It is difficult to draw conclusions about the direct effects of these impacts on economic growth on the whole of Latin America but regional trends of positive and negative impact have been observed. Therefore, with respect to Latin America as a whole, it can be said that democracy does not have a strong and detrimental relationship with economic growth. Non-democratic countries have shown economic growth with democratic have failed to progress economically in the region. The reason for this, as cited by some experts, is that democracies succumb to popular demands of immediate consumption and fail to realise the profits associated with long-term investments. Also democracies fail to swiftly mobilise resources and are prone to class, ethnic and social struggles. On the other hand, authoritarian governments are more capable to suppressing conflicts and implementing measures that are necessary for achieving rapid as well as long-term growth. These reasons can explain the current economic conditions (crisis) in Latin America. The support for democracy from majority of the population also plays a role in the effect that democracy can have on economic growth. This gives raise to another question of whether there must be a choice between pro-growth policies and
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Law - Essay Example The understanding of Common Law is important because it forms the basis for understanding of the important provisions of other laws. Certain laws in the UK, like Law of Torts, Contract Law and Property Laws exist only in Common Law and, therefore, it assumes greater importance. Even in Australia, the Common Law practiced is derived from the UK Common Laws. There is a single Common Law prevalent in Austrialia and there is a common bond between the Common Law practiced in Australia and that found in the UK. The decisions of the House of Lords in England also forms the basis for judgment in many decided cases in Australia , and even today, the previous decided cases in the House of Lords forms the basis for judgment passed regarding Common Laws practiced in Australia. STEP 2: The tort of negligence includes the following aspects of the law such as the duty of care to be shown, breach of duty on the part of the defendant, factual causation, legal causation or remoteness and damage. The Australian Common Law says that the defendant must have a duty of care towards the claimant. The claimant must prove that the defendant has breached his duty by not exercising reasonable care. The first aspect is whether the defendant owed a duty towards the claimant. The second aspect relates to whether the duty has been breached. Again for the case to hold good, it is also necessary that the particular act were the cause of the loss or damages suffered. Again the aspect of how remote or close the action of the person caused harm to the claimant should also be assessed. Finally even though the breach of duty of the defendant has been proved, the negligence should have caused injury to the claimant, as a direct result of breach of care on the part of the defendant. (a) The case mentioned is regarding unintentional trespass on the part of Mary Jane, and as
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Quality Indicators Paper - Essay Example It provides it services to patients from its three locations at Rochester, Minnesota; Jacksonville, Florida; and Scottsdale/Phoenix, Arizona (About Mayo Clinic). In 2008, Mayo Clinic was again adjudged as the best hospital in United States of America by U.S. News & World Report for the nineteenth consecutive. This continuing honor for Mayo Clinic is a reflection of the commitment to quality in health care that Mayo Clinic demonstrates which becomes evident from these words of Glenn Forbes, CEO of Mayo Clinic, Rochester Ã¢â¬Å"Were committed to setting the standard for high-value care Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Nothing is more important to Mayo Clinic than quality and providing the best care to every patient, every day" (Honor Roll for 2008). The primary value at Mayo Clinic is putting the needs of the patient first. Core principles guide the various activities at Mayo Clinic. Medicine is practiced as an integrated multi-disciplinary team with compassion. Mayo Clinic believes in continually educating its physicians, scientists, and allied health professionals and also being a source of information to its patients and community that it serves. Basic and clinical research at Mayo Clinic is founded on the principle of the research enhancing patient care and being of benefit to society. Mayo Clinic believes in mutual respect and practices it by treating all the members of its diverse community with respect and dignity. Mayo Clinic is committed to quality and strives to improve the quality of health care that it provides by continually improving all the processes involved in the delivery of patient care, education and research. Mayo Clinic believes in an appropriate work atmosphere that is brought about by fostering teamwork, personal responsibility, integrity, innovation, trust, and communication through all the processes of a physician-led institution. Its commitment to society is made up of benefiting humanity by patient care, education and
Friday, July 26, 2019
Discuss Objectivity in Journalism - Essay Example This paper will scrutinize the definition of objectivity, the manner it emerged to be a vital principle of journalism, the way it is currently defined and seem at the approach it might be handled in the future (Boveee, 1999, 45). Regarding to the vocabulary, the expression Ã¢â¬Å"objectivityÃ¢â¬ denotes concentration on aspects sovereign of the mind, or, a staging of an outside world that is visible or demonstrable, particularly by scientific technique. In the fewer technical planet of journalism, an expert called Philips articulated objectivity was a number of canons centered on ideas of balance, equality, lack of prejudice, accuracy and impartiality. Intended for the news people, objectivity is all concerning reporting the information in a reasonable and unprejudiced manner. It is, in addition, related to expertise in journalism. Gerald Stone denoted it as the capacity of the reporters to distinguish his individual leanings and his aptitude to organize them. Journalists are obli gated to account the reality (Fortner & Fackler, 2011, 78). Yet that might not be clear-cut in a condition of Ã¢â¬Ëmanifold realitiesÃ¢â¬â¢ a condition where no single Ã¢â¬ËrealityÃ¢â¬â¢ is additionally applicable than another. However, to comprehend the multifaceted state of impartiality in present dayÃ¢â¬â¢s journalism, it is initially essential to perceive its development. The first journalists had extra urgent subjects to tackle than the chase of objectivity. Denouncement was a general law offence since the period of 16th century. In the meantime, the majority of European nations approved printing presses and copiers were issues to prior suppression (Friend & Singer, 2007, 68). Punishments were unsympathetic and untimely journalists like Daniel Defoe underwent the humiliations of jail and denounce for their articulations. However, Harris was put to prison, not since he printed vilifications, but since he wrote the reality, as he perceived it. The initial signs of revol ution emerged with FranklinÃ¢â¬â¢s addition of the liberty of the journalists. In spite of FranklinÃ¢â¬â¢s individual policy of perspective neutrality, news was typically reported in adherent style until the period of 19th century. This was also enhanced by the emergence of Reuters. As soon as they and additional collection wire services required generating money by promoting information to newspapers of manifold political insights, they resolved they wanted to stick to particulars and left the verdict to the journalists. Journalists themselves started to take on this performance as their individual audiences continued to be more miscellaneous (Miraldi, 1990, 65). The incursion of university graduates in a number of American correspondents commenced to shape new-fangled ideas concerning how to carry out work. Among of these thoughts was that reports required being realistic. By the period of 1920s, newspapers tried to draw cultured middle class persons who read by pressuring the ir commitment to principles of impartiality as what was termed consensually authenticated particulars about the globe. However, consensual corroboration did not extend for long. The increase of period of war half-truths and the post-war growth of civic relations destined that faith in aimed facts commenced to wane. To contradict this, Walter Lippman encountered half-truths at primary hand in World I War period commenced to typify objectivity as a technique. His thoughts received properly.
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Federal Reserve - Essay Example The article argues that even as the Federal Reserve has been in existence since 1913, it wasnt until the 1970s that it assumed as great a control of the American financial system as it has today. The Federal Reserve was created in 1913 by Woodrow Wilson. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries credit was controlled entirely by private banks. Farmers in the mid-western regions grew increasingly upset by this fact, as they complained that oftentimes the banks would alter their credit options at times when the farmers were vulnerable. The Federal Reserve was created as a compromise, with the banks still controlling credit, but the government determining the supply of funds. While the intervening years have seen significant reforms in the way the Federal Reserve operates, its underlining function has remained the same. Private banks are able to borrow from the reserve at a discounted rate, they then loan this money to borrowers at the federal funds rate, or interest rate. As the Federal Reserve raises rates, so must the banks raise the rates of loans. This system is designed to ensure fair and equitable lending throughout the country. The current chairman of the Federal Reserv e, who was recently reappointed in January of 2010, and Alan Greenspan and Paul Volcker preceded him.(Johnson, Web) When the recession hit the Federal Reserve began the process of lowering interests rates to increase consumer spending. At this point, the Fed has virtually lowered the interest rate to 0%. In addition to lowering the interest rate the Fed has engaged in a number of unorthodox methods in an effort to revive the sputtering economy. Ã¢â¬Å"Those techniques include buying vast amounts of longer-term Treasury bonds, mortgage-backed securities issued by government-sponsored companies like Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and commercial debt issued by private companies and consumer lenders.Ã¢â¬ (NY Times, Web) In addition to these techniques, the reserve helped in JPMorgans merger with Bear
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
What are the Psychological effects of the amount of violence portrayed in movies - Research Proposal Example The case of violence against a specific ethnic group shows some psychological variance with movies such as Catch a Fire or Munich since they may shift the observers political viewpoint towards the individuals against which violence is perpetrated even if such a shift is short lived (Koopman and Butler, 2007). The researchers also note that Ã¢â¬Å"Research to date indicates that political films have a variety of discernible short-term effects on political beliefs and attitudes, behavior and behavioral intentions, emotions, and other psychological variables (Koopman and Butler, 2007, Pg. 1)Ã¢â¬ . However, when dealing with violence and the problem of violent films, it may be possible that the effect measured is less than the effect which actually takes place. For example, if a person has existing viewpoints about a certain political thought, violence for or against that political thought may only go to heighten and reinforce the political ideas rather than weaken them (Koopman and Butler, 2007). In essence, if a violent person sees violent behavior being rewarded in a film, it may go to reinforce their ideas about violence in general whether it is sexual violence or physical violence (Malamuth and Briere, 1986). The psychological effects of watching violent films become clear when we understand that individuals who habitually watch violent movies may be more likely to be violent with their peers and exhibit the same the kinds of behaviors even when their social conflicts could be resolved without violence (Bandura et. al., 1963). The same can be said to be true of sexual aggression since a viewer who sees violent sexual portrayals repeatedly may be more likely to enact them in his/her real life. The association between sexual arousal and violence may become a cue for some individuals to readily make violence a part of sexual arousal (Malamuth and Briere, 1986). Of course,