Tuesday, December 24, 2019

Rene Descartes Meditations - 1093 Words

Rene Descartes’s Meditations on first Philosophy starts under a very ingenious pretense: find the one thing that is undoubtable. Being a subjectivist and one of the first modern philosophers, he tried to doubt everything he believed to be true. He took metaphysics and logic with certainty and implored the skeptical method to everything else. He began to look at senses and realized that it was merely a representation in your brain. He was in aware of the mind brain separation and how perception is very deceiving. However, the one baseline truth he found was that he exists because he is a thinking rational being. Despite his enlightened start, he spends the remaining meditations trying to prove the existence of God, which is ironically, something that, is very doubtable. In Meditation III Descartes utilizes the criteria of certainty, that everything he is to prove must be clear and distinct. He is a rationalist and believes that innate ideas are born within and derive from reaso n. These are important premises when looking at his first argument for God’s existence. He operates under the assumption that we, as rational beings, cannot be wrong about having an idea. Ideas are judgments that confirm something in the real world. His first argument can be called from the idea of God. Directly this concludes that the idea of God is too great to have thought of by anyone but God. However, this argument is ultimately flawed and does not directly answer theShow MoreRelatedDiscourse On Method And Meditations On First Philosophy945 Words   |  4 PagesDiscourse on Method and Meditations on First Philosophy was written by Rene Descarte. His main focus was to decide if God was real or not and if God created him or not. In Meditation Five, Descarte states that God existed because he has prior knowledge of materialistic things. He states that he recalls objects without prior knowledge of them, and that everyone perceives all the objects in the same type of manner. In the end of the mediation he closes it out by stating that, we all can think of nonRead MoreLanguage and the Destiny of Man12402 Words   |  50 Pagessought to clarify the matter. He sought to distinguish between two terms, â€Å"distinction† and â€Å"separation† and to illuminate the relationship between body and soul at three different levels, i.e. ordinary experience, analytical mind and metaphysical meditation. Eventually, he embraced the paradox of the two natures – the double substantial make-up of the human being, a paradox of patristic inspiration. However, the later history of ideas was not sympathetic to Descartes: nowadays, when one looks up the

Monday, December 16, 2019

Utalitarian Principle in Charles Dickens Hard Times Free Essays

string(24) " along with her father\." INTRODUCTION Utilitarianism is the assumption that human beings act in a way that highlights their own self interest. It is based on factuality and leaves little room for imagination. Utilitarianism dominated as the form of government in England’s Victorian age of eighteenth century. We will write a custom essay sample on Utalitarian Principle in Charles Dickens Hard Times or any similar topic only for you Order Now Utilitarianism, as rightly claimed by Dickens, robbed the people of their individuality and joy; deprived the children of their special period of their lives, ‘Childhood’ and deprived women of their inherent right of equality. The theme of utilitarianism, along with industrialization and education is explored by Charles Dickens, in his novel  Hard Times.. Hard Times written in those times intended to explore its negativisms. Utilitarianism as a government was propounded as a value of system which evaluated its productivity by its overall utility. It substantiated the idea of â€Å"highest level of happiness for the highest numbers of people†. Since the overall happiness of the nation depended open the overall productivity, industrialism became the walk of everyday life. Moreover, since Utilitarianism assumes that what is good for majority is good for everyone, individual preferences are ignored. The majority answers are always right. Minorities are subjugated and oppressed, instead of being asked for their opinions. Their feelings are ignored and society becomes increasingly practical, and driven by economics. The theory fails to acknowledge any individual rights that could not be violated for the sake of the greater good. Hard Times  was in fact an attack on the Manchester School of economics, which supported  laissez-faire  and promoted a distorted view of Bentham’s ethics. The novel has been criticised for not offering specific remedies for the Condition-of-England problems it addresses. It is debatable whether solutions to social problems are to be sought in fiction, but nevertheless, Dickens’s novel anticipated the future debates concerning anti-pollution legislation, intelligent town-planning, health and safety measures in factories and a humane education system. The school teachers are compared to a gun loaded to its muzzle by facts ready to be exploded to the children. The children in schools don’t have names and are called by numbers. There is no room for imaginative answers. When the teacher asks to answer what ‘horse’ is, a student named Bitzer gives a factual answer, â€Å"quadruped† having this-many teeth etc, but by no means the ‘qualities’ of the horse is exemplified and considered. The influence of utilitarianism is shown particularly by two characters in the novel, Gradgrind and Bounderby. Both are money-oriented, have materialistic outlook and give importance to ‘facts’. eople in insane productivity. Dickens provides three vivid examples of this utilitarian logic in Hard Times The first; Mr. Thomas Gradgrind, one of the main characters in the book, was the principal of a school in Coketown. He was a firm believer in utilitarianism and instilled this philosophy into the students at the school from a very young age, as well as his own children. Mr. Josiah Bounderby was also a practitioner of utilitarianism, but was more interested in the profit that stemmed from it. At the other end of the perspective, a group of circus members, who are the total opposite of utilitarians, are added by Dickens to provide a sharp contrast from the ideas of Mr. Bounderby and Mr. Gradgrind. Thomas Gradgrind Sr. , a father of five children, has lived his life by the book and  never strayed from his philosophy that life is nothing more than facts and statistics. . Thomas Gradgrind in particular always gives importance to facts and raises his children to be hard, machine-like and epitomes of facts and they lack any emotions. Even while justifying Louisa’s marriage to ‘old’ Bounderby, he does so by some mathematical calculations and logic.. He has successfully incorporated this belief into the school system of Coketown, and has tried his best to do so with his own children. They did not consider, however, the children’s need for fiction, poetry, and other fine arts that are used to expand children’s minds, all of which are essential today in order to produce well-rounded human beings through the educational process. One has to wonder how different the story would be if Gradgrind did not run the school. How can you give a utilitarian man such as Gradgrind such power over a town? I do like how Dickens structures the book to make one ask obvious questions such as these. Dickens does not tell us much about the success of the other students of the school besides Bitzer, who is fairly successful on paper, but does not have the capacity as a person to deal with life’s everyday struggles. Gradgrinds two oldest children, Tom and Louisa, are examples of how this utilitarian method failed miserably. These children were never given the opportunity to think for themselves, experience fun things in life, or even use their imaginations. True, they are smart people in the factual sense but do not have the street smarts to survive. Tom is a young man who, so fed up with his father’s strictness and repetition, revolts against him and leaves home to work in Mr. Bounderby’s bank. Tom, now out from under his fathers wing, he begins to drink and gamble heavily. Eventually, to get out of a deep gambling debt, he robs a bank and is forced to flee the area. When Bitzer realizes that Tom has robbed the bank and catches him, Mr. Gradgrind begs him to let Tom go, reminding him of all of the hard work that was put on him while at the school. Ironically Bitzer, using the tools of factuality that he had learned in Gradgrinds school, replies that the school was paid for, but it is now over and he owes nothing more. I think this is extremely funny how, at a time of need, Gradgrind’s educational theory has backfired in his face. I think Dickens put this irony in as a comical device but also to show how ineffective the utilitarian method of teaching is. Louisa, unlike Tom, does get along with her father. You read "Utalitarian Principle in Charles Dickens Hard Times" in category "Essay examples" She even agrees to marry Mr. Bounderby, even though she does not love him, in order to please her father. She stays in the marriage with Bounderby, and goes about life normally and factually, until she is faced with a dilemma and panics. Mr. James Harthouse, a young, good looking guy, is attracted to Louisa and deceivingly draws her attraction to him. She does not know what to do since she has never had feelings of her own before. Her father never gave her the opportunity to think for herself, or even love someone. This is why Louisa goes frantic and ends up crying in her fathers lap. She has always been told what to do and what is ‘right’, and now even her father is stumped. For the first time in the whole novel, Mr. Gradgrind strays from the utilitarian philosophy and shows compassion for his daughter and her feelings. One must think that he is beginning to doubt his philosophy after seeing it backfire in his face more than once. Josiah Bounderby is another prime example of utilitarianism. He is one of the wealthiest people in Coketown; owning a bank and a factory, but is not really a likable person. His utilitarian philosophy is similar to Gradgrinds in the sense that factuality is the single most important virtue that one could posses. Mr. Bounderby maintained throughout the story his utilitarian views, which basically stated that nothing else is important besides profit. Being the owner of both a factory and a bank, Bounderby employs many workers, yet seems to offer them no respect at all. He refers to the factory workers as â€Å"Hands,† because that is all they are to him. Bounderby often states that workers are all looking for â€Å"venison, turtle soup, and a golden spoon,† while all they really want is decent working conditions and fair wage for their work. He is not concerned about his employees as human beings, but how much their hands can produce during the workday, resulting with money in his pocket. When one of his workers, Stephen Blackpool came to Bounderby’s house asking for advice about his bad marriage, he was treated as inferior just because of his social status. Dickens portrayed the scene as one in which Blackpool was on a level five steps below Bounderby and his associates because he was a lowly worker who was obviously much less educated than them. It almost seemed like they would not even take him seriously because he was such. Blackpool was told that he could not divorce his wife because it would be against the laws of England. Later in the book, Bounderby divorces his wife. This shows that wealth played a large role in determining the social classes that people were in and the privileges they had. This was definitely unfair but the social classes were structured in a way which allowed those who had money to look down upon those who were less fortunate. Generally, those who were not well-educated did not have any money, while the well-educated ones such as Bounderby and Gradgrind were wealthy. The people who knew the factual information, (utilitarians) were successful, while those who did not were reduced to working in the factories of the utilitarians. Dickens paints a vivid picture of this inequality between social classes and shows he does not care much for it. It is fairly easy to see that Dickens holds a contempt for Bounderby and the utilitarian philosophy he carries. The book details the philosophy, then shows how miserably it failed. How much different would their lives be if the town was not run by utilitarians. Dickens cleverly added in circus people as a contrast to the utilitarian approach to life. The circus people could be called the total opposite of utilitarianism. If one element of the book stands out in my mind, it would be this one. The circus people are simple, open-minded human beings whose goal in life is to make people laugh. Dickens portrays them as a step up from the â€Å"Hands† but still close to the bottom in the social structure. These people are hated by Gradgrind, Bounderby and other utilitarians because they represent everything that is shunned in utilitarianism such as love, imagination, and humor. Sissy Jupe, the daughter of a circus man, was taken in by the Gradgrinds to live in their home. She is representative of the circus people with her innocence and free-will, qualities which are lacking in the lives of the people around her. Just by her presence, her goodness rubs off on the people around her, although it is too late for most of them. Even after numerous attempts to force utilitarianism into her by Mr. Gradgrind and his school, she is still the fun-loving girl that she always was because she grew up living with â€Å"normal† people who thought for themselves and loved each other. She influenced these qualities on the youngest Gradgrind daughter Jane, who led a much more enjoyable and fulfilling life than her older sister Louisa because of those influences. Jane is not spoken of much until the end of the book but I like the way Dickens showed the effects of the utilitarian lifestyle as opposed to the non-utilitarian lifestyle. The utilitarians ultimately ended with a great downfall because their narrow-minds could not endure the pressures that life can impose on oneself. The people that did not fall victim to the utilitarian trap were able to live their lives happily and freely, able to love, laugh, and use their imagination; which is the way life ought to be lived. Dickens obviously had a definitive opinion of the way life should be lived and did an excellent job of depicting it. His method was somewhat indirect in the sense that he worked backwards to get his point across, but turned out to be very effective as the story progressed. Most of the story revolved around utilitarianism and the study of cold hard facts, but when the character flaws began to surface as a result of this philosophy, Dickens is quick to emphasize them. One actually sees the main character of the book and firm supporter of utilitarianism, Mr. Thomas Gradgrind, experience the faults of his practice and begin to stray from it. Now, after watching his life fall apart, maybe he wishes he were in the circus. .  . The working and living conditions were often atrocious. Working days were long, and wages low, as employers often exploited their workers and increased their profits by lowering the cost of production by paying meagre wages and neglecting pollution control. Safety measures were often ignored and workers were put out of jobs by the introduction of machines that created a surplus of labour. The rate of accidents was very high. A handicapped worker was doomed to extreme poverty, as there were no social security or insurance payments. The New Poor Law of 1834 was based on the â€Å"principle of less eligibility,† which stipulated that the condition of the â€Å"able-bodied pauper† on relief (it did not apply to the sick, aged, or children) be less â€Å"eligible†that is, less desirable, less favorable than the condition of the independent laborer. This reasoning was absolutely correct from the scientific and the Utilitarian point of view, but it rejected any emotional considerations. There was no consciousness of class beyond a recognition that the ‘masters’ constituted a different order of society into which they would never penetrate. Their aspirations were modest: to be respected by their fellows ;to see their families growing up and making their way in the world, and to die without debt and without sin. Trade unions did appear to introduce and protect workers rights, but in the initial stages of industrialisation, the workers were not protected. Purely theoretically, it can be proven that Utilitarianism poses a threat to humanity. For example, if one person must suffer to make other people happy, then in the Utilitarian terms it is acceptable to make that person suffer. One of the Hands in Bounderby’s factory, Stephen lives a life of drudgery and poverty. In spite of the hardships of his daily toil, Stephen strives to maintain his honesty, integrity, faith, and compassion. Stephen is an important character not only because his poverty and virtue contrast with Bounderby’s wealth and self-interest, but also because he finds himself in the midst of a labor dispute that illustrates the strained relations between rich and poor. Stephen is the only Hand who refuses to join a workers’ union: he believes that striking is not the best way to improve relations between factory owners and employees, and he also wants to earn an honest living. As a result, he is cast out of the workers’ group. However, he also refuses to spy on his fellow workers for Bounderby, who consequently sends him away. Both groups, rich and poor, respond in the same self-interested, backstabbing way. As Rachael explains, Stephen ends up with the â€Å"masters against him on one hand, the men against him on the other, he only wantin’ to work hard in peace, and do what he felt right. † Through Stephen, Dickens suggests that industrialization threatens to compromise both the employee’s and employer’s moral integrity, thereby creating a social muddle to which there is no easy solution. Through his efforts to resist the moral corruption on all sides, Stephen becomes a martyr, or Christ figure, ultimately dying for Tom’s crime. When he falls into a mine shaft on his way back to Coketown to clear his name of the charge of robbing Bounderby’s bank, Stephen comforts himself by gazing at a particularly bright star that seems to shine on him in his â€Å"pain and trouble. † This star not only represents the ideals of virtue for which Stephen strives, but also the happiness and tranquility that is lacking in his troubled life. Moreover, his ability to find comfort in the star illustrates the importance of imagination, which enables him to escape the cold, hard facts of his miserable existence. In  Hard Times  human relationships are contaminated by economics. The principles of the ‘dismal science’ led to the formation of a selfish and atomistic society. The social commentary of  Hard Times  is quite clear. Dickens is concerned with the conditions of the urban labourers and the excesses of laissez-faire capitalism. He exposes the exploitation of the working class by unfeeling industrialists and the damaging consequences of propagating factual knowledge (statistics) at the expense of feeling and imagination. However, although Dickens is critical about Utilitarianism, he cannot find a better way of safeguarding social justice than through ethical means. â€Å"In place of Utilitarianism, Dickens can offer only good-heartedness, individual charity, and Sleary’s horse-riding; like other writers on the Condition of England Question, he was better equipped to examine the symptoms of the disease than to suggest a possible cure† (Wheeler, 81). Hard Times  proves that fancy is essential for human happiness, and in this aspect it is one of the best morally uplifting novels. Dickens avoided propagating employer paternalism in the manner of Disraeli, Charlotte Bronte and Gaskell, and strongly opposed commodification of labour in Victorian England. As John R. Harrison has pointed out: The target of Dickens’s criticism, however, was not Bentham’s Utilitarianism, nor Malthusian theories of population, nor Smith’s free-market economics, but the crude utilitarianism derived from such ideas by Benthamite Philosophical Radicals, which tended to dominate social, political, and economic thinking and policy at the time the novel was written. The Gradgrind/Bounderby philosophy is that the Coketown â€Å" Hands† are commodities, â€Å" something† to be worked so much and paid so much, to be â€Å"infallibly settled† by â€Å"laws of supply and demand,† something that increased in number by a certain â€Å" rate of percentage† with accompanying percentages of crime and pauperism; in fact, â€Å"something wholesale, of which vast fortunes were made. † REFERENCES * All references to Bentham’s  Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation  will be to the section of it republished in Burr and Goldinger’s  Philosophy and Contemporary Issues. New York: Macmillan,1992. p. 225-232. * Dimwiddy, John. Bentham. Oxford  and  New York:  Oxford  UP, 1989. * Mitchell,Sally,ed. Victorian  Britain: An Encyclopedia. New York  and  London:  GarlandPublishing,1988. * Cazamian, Louis. The Social Novel in  England  1830-1850. London  and  Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1973. * Woodward, Sir Llewellyn. The Age of Reform 1815- 1870. The  Oxford  history of  England. Oxford:  Oxford  UP, 1962. How to cite Utalitarian Principle in Charles Dickens Hard Times, Essay examples

Sunday, December 8, 2019

Communication and Thought Interpersonal Communication System

Question: Discuss about theCommunication and Thought for Interpersonal Communication System. Answer: Introduction: As mentioned by San Martn (2015) in simple terms the exchange of informations that is done between two or more people is known as interpersonal communication. With the increase in the knowledge and with continuous practice, development and improvement in the communication skills is visualised. During the process of this interpersonal communication system there is sending of the message from one source and the receiving of the message at the other source. There are many ways of conducting this communication system, however, the most successful system is the one in which where the message that is sent by the sender is understood by the receiver. This study considers variety of elements and both the qualitative and the quantitative methods are used for the exploration of the interpersonal communication. In all of the business organization, the people require to interact with each other and almost everyday use interpersonal communication system. The interpersonal communication is required in the business organizations to interact with the customers, handle complaints and feedbacks to the customers, interact within the organization with the employee and also for other needs (Brandler and Roman 2015). The Communication Skills: The interpersonal skills are used when the means of communication that is being is the face to face communication. The different types of interpersonal communication skills are: Skills of Listening: While communicating with the other people, listening to the other person is the most vital interpersonal skill of communication as during a conversation a person spends about 45% of the time in listening to the other person. The ability that allows the person to receive and to interpret the massage accurately is known as the listening. Without being able to listen and understand the message effectively, the communication system may breakdown. The different principles of listening are: Stop talking: While talking continuously the person could not listen to what the other person is trying to say. So in order to listen one must first stop talking and focus on what the other person is trying to say. Comfort: Both the speaker and the listener needs to be comfortable while therefore, listener needs to show indications that the words spoken by the speaker are being conveyed to them. the speaker must not anything that would distract the speaker from speaking his words. Empathise: The listening does not only mean to listen to the words spoken by the speaker but also to understand the point of view of the other person also and understand trhe things from that sense. Patience: The listener also needs to be patience for the time period and should not interrupt while the speaker is trying to convey its message and let them continue to finish their message. Non- Verbal communication: While listening the only focus should not be only on the words but also on the eye moment, gesture and the facial expression of the speaker (Asemota 2015). Skills of Feedback: The feedback is the performance review of any person or any business organization. However, effective feedback could be defined as a feedback that is clearly heard, understood and accepted. Skill is required for giving effective feedbacks and it can transform the effectiveness of the feedback that is being offered and receptiveness of the receiver. The different principles of giving feedback in the business sector are: Effective feedback: Before giving the feedback to the desired person one should first understand the purpose of giving the feedback and the requirement. A feedback should not be harsh or offensive. Regularity: Giving of the feedback should be done on a regular basis as this is a process that requires attention. This is not a once in a year of a month event, it should be given as regular as possible so that the problems may not get out of hands. Specific: While giving out of the feedback, there should be specific and exact mention of what was wrong and on what does the receiver needs to improve or work on. Privacy: It is not that feedback would always be positive; there may also be negative and criticizing comments. Feedbacks as such should be given in private and not openly (Archer and Howie 2013). Skills of Questioning: Questioning the other person is the basics of effective communication system. Questioning effectively during an appropriate situation may change the whole range of the communication skills. The different principles of questioning are: Question strategy: Before asking a question, the first thing to consider is what to be asked. Asking of question would not make sense if the question asked is not appropriate. Questioning Styles: The type of question that is to be asked is also to be considered. Listening: After a question is asked, the answers would tell the questioner if he had the answer to what it has asked or not (Godbold and McCaffery 2015). Benefits and Models of Communication Skills: Benefits: The Interpersonal communication is the life blood of any business organization. Just like the blood transmits essential elements to the different part of our body, the interpersonal communication also carries essential informations to the different parts of an organization. The benefits of the interpersonal communication skills are: The interpersonal communication skills help to gather informations and communicate within the organization. The active and effective listening and feedback would help the employees and the customers to circulate the informations appropriately and with ease and to know the point of view of each other. The questioning skills help the person to gather information about anything from the other person and also to understand if the listening person has understood the words spoken or not (McQuail and Windahl 2015). Models: Berlos SMCR model of communication: In the year 1960, the Sender- Message- Channel- Receiver model of communication model of Shannon Weaver was modified by David erlo. In this modified model he proposed the different components as the sender who sends the message, the message that is to be sent, the channel which is the mode of transfer and the receiver who will receive the model (Turnitsa 2013). This modified model of David Berlo is represented as: Fig 1: Berlos model of communication, (Source: Heath and Bryant 2013) Through this model it could be specified that the listening as the third component under channel component through which the message from the source gets transferred to the receiver. Lasswells Model of Communication: In the year, the famous theorist of communication, Mr. Harold D. Lasswell developed the Lasswell model of communication. The lasswell model of communication is also known as the linear model or the action model. This one way model of communication is one of the most influential model of communication and was developed by Lasswell to analyze the mass communication (Sapienza et al. 2015). This modal can be represented as: Fig 1: Lasswells model of communication, (Source: Heath and Bryant 2013) In the above model of Lasswells communication model the different components of the communication could be identified. The components of this model are the: WHO: This refers to the person who is the sender of the message. SAYS WHAT: This refers to the message that has been sent by the sender. CHANNEL: This refers to the medium through which the sender sends the message to the receiver. TO WHOM: This refers to the person to whom the sender has sent the message to. WITH WHAT EFFECT: This refers to the effectiveness of the message that the message of the sender has sent to the receiver. The reaction of the receiver to the message is considered as the effect of the message on the receiver. Potential Challenges While Incorporation of the Communication: At times the brain remains busy with the processing of other instances as a result for which the speech is not registered or the already present activities become too loud that completely overpowers the new speech conveyed. A cultural gap may play a pivotal role because cultural differences might have different ways of reciprocation, which not match between two individuals. As a result of this, the listening result may be altered (Fletcher 2016). Language barriers are the main challenges faced in questioning. Moreover, one should have enough courage to proceed and ask a question to superiors or others which are often not done thinking that they might make a fool of himself. Self -respect and ego may act as barriers often in questioning a doubt during a communication (Stevens and Levi 2013). Feedback in a two ways communication does not have barriers as such. However, in a one way communication, there is often no scope for feedback. Such communications may include passing of ideas, information and instructions from higher authority, which does not allow the system of feedback. The lack of this provision always creates dissatisfaction and communication thus disrupting a proper feedback provision acting as a barrier (Scott 2016). Recommendation: The employees and managers of the business should be patient while listening to the complaints or any queries from the clients and the customers. Similarly, the company should carefully focus on implementing the changes as necessary. A system of receiving complaints and suggestions should be initiated so that the customers have a scope of showing their complaints and concerns. This would make the customers feel important and accepted. A clients remark is necessary for developing the products quality of the product. Product research should be conducted so that manufacturers can understand the prospective of the customers on a particular product. The employees should ask questions to customers about their products. Conclusion: Innumerable kinds of challenges often cause disruption of a proper communication in work fields. In business organizations, communication is the only process that is needed for effective results. The main mode of functioning however gets challenged due to various barriers such as noise, language and many others mentioned above which effects the tools such as feedback, questioning and listening. Different models of researchers further strengthen the discussion. All of these are done to state that with the help of the communication skills a smooth communication would exists between the stakeholders for further success in future. References: Archer, E. and Howie, S., 2013. Optimising a feedback system for monitoring learner performance in primary schools. Asemota, H.E., 2015. Nature, Importace and Practice pf Listening Skill.British Journal of Education,3(7), pp.27-33. Brandler, S. and Roman, C.P., 2015. Group work: Skills and strategies for effective interventions. Routledge. Fletcher, J.G., 2016.Exploring the Listening Phenomenon: The Effects of Receiver Apprehension and Communication Competence on Listening Style(Doctoral dissertation, University of Colorado Colorado Springs. Kraemer Family Library). Godbold, N. and McCaffery, K., 2015. Improving care by listening: care communication and shared decision-making.Communicating Quality and Safety in Health Care, p.164. Heath, R.L. and Bryant, J., 2013.Human communication theory and research: Concepts, contexts, and challenges. Routledge. McQuail, D. and Windahl, S., 2015. Communication models for the study of mass communications. Routledge. San Martn, C., Montero, I., Navarro, M.I. and Biglia, B., 2014. The development of referential communication: Improving message accuracy by coordinating private speech with peer questioning.Early Childhood Research Quarterly,29(1), pp.76-84. Sapienza, Z.S., Iyer, N. and Veenstra, A.S., 2015. Reading Lasswell's Model of Communication Backward: Three Scholarly Misconceptions. Mass Communication and Society, 18(5), pp.599-622. Scott, L., 2016. Effective Communication Requires Caring, Explaining, Listening, and Living the Role. Stevens, D.D. and Levi, A.J., 2013.Introduction to rubrics: An assessment tool to save grading time, convey effective feedback, and promote student learning. Stylus Publishing, LLC Turnitsa, C., 2013. Communication model elements for societal behavior representation using agent based models. In Proceedings, 2013 Fall Simulation Interoperability Workshop.

Saturday, November 30, 2019

Racial Profiling Essays (1397 words) - Offender Profiling

Racial Profiling The great era of civil rights started in the 1960s, with Martin Luther King, Jr.'s stirring "I have a Dream" speech at the historic march on Washington in August of 1963. At the same time Birmingham Police Commissioner "Bull" Connor used powerful fire hoses and vicious police attack dogs against nonviolent black civil rights activists. Although these years proved to be the highlight and downfall of civil rights in America, even with the 1964 Civil Rights Act and the 1965 Voting Rights Act being passed, time has repeated these tumultuous events again in the present. Racial profiling has been one of many civil rights issues concerning the unnecessary stopping and arresting of people based on race, color, ethnicity and gender. Skin-color has become evidence of the propensity to commit crime, and police use this "evidence" against minority drivers on the road all the time. This practice is so common that the minority community has given it the derisive term, "Driving While Black or Brown" ? a play on the real offense of "driving while intoxicated". Although many law enforcement officers defend themselves by saying they are fighting against the "War on Drugs" by arresting these law offenders, recent trials and reports show that no basis of arrest have been found against these minorities. Official skin-color prejudice is still reflected throughout the criminal justice system. Today, skin-color makes you a suspect in America. It makes you more likely to be stopped by a law enforcement officer, more likely to be searched, and more likely to be arrested and imprisoned. Tens of thousands of innocent motorists on highways across the country are victims of racial profiling, and these discriminatory police stops have reached epidemic proportions in recent years. Fueled by the "War on Drugs", this fight has given police a pretext to target people who they think fit a "drug courier" or "gang member" profile. At many times, these minorities have been stopped and arrested for illegal offenses, however we are not sure if these stories have been filed truthfully by law enforcement officers. Many police departments face issues concerning racist law enforcement officers who cause the problems of racial profiling. One such example comes from the Hillside Police Department, where several racial bias charges have been made against them. Racial slurs have become common in the Hillside district, where even the department supervisor does background checks on minorities IN the squad, even to kick them off the squad. In this department, only two officers are Hispanic and one is of African decent. The officers, many of whom are white, are encouraged to target minorities first to fill their ticket quotas for the month. Hillside officers defend themselves saying that Hillside is 40 percent black and 20 percent Hispanic. However, the actions taken by Hillside officer, such as targeting to fill quotas and background checking, seem disconcerting. The Reverend Jesse Jackson even needed to call for federal protection for whistleblowing police officers. Because of the Law Enforcement Trust and Integrity Act, passed this year, other officials who witness this discriminating act are protected. It says, "The identity of a law enforcement officer who complains in food faith to a government agency or department about the unlawful practices of a law enforcement agency shall remain confidential and shall not be disclosed by any person except upon the knowing written consent of the law enforcement officer. This section shall not preempt any right of confrontation protected by the Constitution of by Federal, State or tribal law." In many cases, we can not determine whether the racial profiling comes from the individual law enforcer, or the department itself. Many policies have been suggested to either report these discriminatory acts, or to record the ethnicity, race, or gender of the person being stopped. However, without the correct supervision of these officers, we can not truthfully tell whether these policies will be followed. There have been bills proposed to even make the slightest positive effect on racial profiling, yet many have been overlooked. Former California Governor Pete Wilson served as best he could to fight key civil rights issues such as affirmative action and immigrant rights, however Governor Gray Davis has had a disappointing civil rights record. Although he has helped establish new civil rights gains for the lesbian and gay communities, he has also vetoed a number of bills aimed at reducing discrimination against communities of color and immigrants. SB 44, a bill sponsored by Senator Richard Polanco, encourages state and local governments to conduct outreach programs. SB 44 had bipartisan support and was previously endorsed by former

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Free Essays on OSI Model

1.) Compare the OSI reference model and the TCP/IP suite of protocols and state their differences. OSI divides telecommunication into seven layers. The layers are in two groups. The upper four layers are used whenever a message passes from or to a user. The lower three layers (up to the network layer) are used when any message passes through the host computer. Messages intended for this computer pass to the upper layers. Messages destined for some other host are not passed up to the upper layers but are forwarded to another host. The seven layers are: Layer 7: The application layer...This is the layer at which communication partners are identified, quality of service is identified, user authentication and privacy are considered, and any constraints on data syntax are identified. (This layer is not the application itself, although some applications may perform application layer functions.) Layer 6: The presentation layer...This is a layer, usually part of an operating system, that converts incoming and outgoing data from one presentation format to another (for example, from a text stream into a popup window with the newly arrived text). Sometimes called the syntax layer. Layer 5: The session layer...This layer sets up, coordinates, and terminates conversations, exchanges, and dialogs between the applications at each end. It deals with session and connection coordination. Layer 4: The transport layer...This layer manages the end-to-end control (for example, determining whether all packets have arrived) and error-checking. It ensures complete data transfer. Layer 3: The network layer...This layer handles the routing of the data (sending it in the right direction to the right destination on outgoing transmissions and receiving incoming transmissions at the packet level). The network layer does routing and forwarding. Layer 2: The data-link layer...This layer provides synchronization for the physical level and does bit-stuffin... Free Essays on OSI Model Free Essays on OSI Model 1.) Compare the OSI reference model and the TCP/IP suite of protocols and state their differences. OSI divides telecommunication into seven layers. The layers are in two groups. The upper four layers are used whenever a message passes from or to a user. The lower three layers (up to the network layer) are used when any message passes through the host computer. Messages intended for this computer pass to the upper layers. Messages destined for some other host are not passed up to the upper layers but are forwarded to another host. The seven layers are: Layer 7: The application layer...This is the layer at which communication partners are identified, quality of service is identified, user authentication and privacy are considered, and any constraints on data syntax are identified. (This layer is not the application itself, although some applications may perform application layer functions.) Layer 6: The presentation layer...This is a layer, usually part of an operating system, that converts incoming and outgoing data from one presentation format to another (for example, from a text stream into a popup window with the newly arrived text). Sometimes called the syntax layer. Layer 5: The session layer...This layer sets up, coordinates, and terminates conversations, exchanges, and dialogs between the applications at each end. It deals with session and connection coordination. Layer 4: The transport layer...This layer manages the end-to-end control (for example, determining whether all packets have arrived) and error-checking. It ensures complete data transfer. Layer 3: The network layer...This layer handles the routing of the data (sending it in the right direction to the right destination on outgoing transmissions and receiving incoming transmissions at the packet level). The network layer does routing and forwarding. Layer 2: The data-link layer...This layer provides synchronization for the physical level and does bit-stuffin...

Friday, November 22, 2019

6 Unusual Online Certificate Programs

6 Unusual Online Certificate Programs So, you’re not interested in an online MBA. You’d prefer to lead a rally, write a memoir, or brew the perfect craft beer? Never fear. Several colleges offer online certificate programs that appeal less to sharp-suited business people and more to the garden-growing, media-sharing, beer-brewing types. Interested? Take a look at these unique distance education programs: The Business of Craft Brewing Online Certificate (Portland State University) Through this four-course series, â€Å"industry specialists† teach students everything they need to know to start up and run a successful craft brewery. Courses include â€Å"Basic Business for Craft Beverages,† â€Å"Craft Beverage Business Management,† â€Å"Strategic Craft Beverage Marketing,† and â€Å"Finance and Accounting for the Craft Brewery.† Students are also invited to fly out to Portland to take part in the optional â€Å"Craft Beverage Immersion Excursion,† spending three days meeting with brewery owners, tasting Portland beers, and touring the Oregon beer empire. Cheers. Certificate in Organic Agriculture (University of Washington) If you have a green thumb and a fondness for organic food, the University of Washington Certificate in Organic Agriculture might be for you. The college touts this 18-credit program as a good fit for â€Å"those wanting to pursue a career in organic agriculture, anyone interested in beginning a community supported agriculture (CSA) enterprise, [and] home gardeners.† As a student, you’ll take online courses such as â€Å"Organic Gardening and Farming,† â€Å"Agriculture, Environment, and Community,† and â€Å"Food Safety and Quality.†Ã‚   You’ll also be required to complete an internship, which can be done by volunteering through a local organic farm, organic certifying agency, or organic business. Sustainability Certificate (Harvard Extension School) If you want to promote a sustainability in your community or business, Harvard’s Sustainability Certificate provides instruction from world-class thinkers. Students in this program take five courses. â€Å"Knowledge Set† courses such as â€Å"Energy and the Environment,† â€Å"Strategies for Sustainability Management,† and â€Å"Sustainable Business and Technology,† provide students with a common foundation of understanding. â€Å"Skill Set† courses such as â€Å"Catalyzing Change: Sustainability Leadership for the Twenty-First Century† and â€Å"Introduction to Sustainable Buildings,† help students take action. It’s also important to note that, although this certificate is coming from an ivy-league school, it is an open-access program. Anyone can simply start taking courses towards certificate completion without the need to apply. New Urbanism Online Certificate (Miami School of Architecture) Those with a passion for cities community building may be interested in the New Urbanism Online Certificate. Students earning the certificate are prepared to take the Congress for New Urbanism accreditation exam. (Although you should also be aware that the exam can be taken without the certificate). The New Urbanism certificate is self-paced and takes students through the basics of creating walkable, sustainable places. Course units include: â€Å"A Crisis of Place and the Alternative of the New Urbanism,† â€Å"Ecology Built Legacy,† â€Å"Architecture, Local Culture, and Community Identity,† â€Å"Green Building and Historic Preservation,† and â€Å"Implementing New Urbanism.† Creative Nonfiction Writing Online Certificate (UCLA Extension Program) If you’re serious about writing that best-selling memoir, personal essay, or political history, take a look at this UCLA creative non-fiction program. You’ll focus most of your 36 credits on intensive creative non-fiction instruction. You’ll also have the opportunity to choose from electives in poetry, playwriting, and fiction. Best of all, students that complete the coursework are given a consultation with a UCLA Writer’s Program instructor, detailed notes, and an in-person or phone critique session. Certificate in Community Organizing (Empire State College) What would you like to see change in your community? If you have a quick answer to that question but don’t know how to make it happen, consider earning a Certificate in Community Organizing. Empire State’s program arms students with knowledge about justice, power dynamics, and navigating government environments. It aims to help learners develop a skill set that can be applied to create lasting change in their communities. This 12-credit program includes courses such as â€Å"Advocacy in State and Community-Level Government,† â€Å"Race, Gender, and Class in U.S. Public Policy,† and â€Å"Human Service Policy.† To complete the certificate, students are required to apply their learning by working with real communities while taking the capstone â€Å"Community Organizing† course. Free Learning Alternatives If youd rather not jump into a major time commitment and write a big check just yet, take a look at these less formal free online classes. Youll find options for a wide array of subjects including photography, guitar, and writing.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Membership of the Eoropean Community and the effects of the Human Essay

Membership of the Eoropean Community and the effects of the Human Rights Act 1998 has had little impact on the approaches to statutory interpretation practiced - Essay Example e provisions of the European Convention of Human Rights could not be used for purposes of statutory interpretation.4Parliamentary sovereignty means that UK law can override international law7, however, the Communities Act of 1972 and the Human Rights Act have raised the question of supremacy of EU law over national law and its application within the country. In the case of FitzPatrick v Sterling8, the Courts had denied statutory rights to a same sex surviving spouse. In the case of Ghaidan v Mendoza9 Mr. Mendoza’s application for statutory tenancy on grounds of discriminatory violation of his Convention Rights under Article 14 and Article 8 on the basis of his sexual orientation, were allowed, in order to protect his freedom to choose his own sexual lifestyle. The case of Bellinger v Bellinger10 deals with the issue of the freedom of a transsexual man-to-woman to his private life and the right to marry, and the Parliament in UK is legislating on the issue of making national law compatible with that laid down by the ECHR in the case of Goodwin v UK11 in which a transsexual’s right to marry was upheld by the Court, thereby upholding the individual’s right to privacy and a normal life. In the Ghaidan case, Mr. Mendoza contended that the House of Lords should exercise its interpretative power to read and give effect to Para 2(2) on statutory rights to make it compatible with Convention rights that guarantee fundamental human rights, including succession rights, which prohibit discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation. The grounds that were offered in support were the provisions of Section 3 of the Human Rights Act, which states that Parliament legislation must be read and given effect to in a way that will be compatible with Convention rights â€Å"so far as it is possible to do so.†12 Further more the Human Rights Act of 1988 incorporated the goals of the European Convention of Human Rights13 within the framework of national law, by including a provision

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Investigating business Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 5

Investigating business - Assignment Example This paper seeks to investigate the Alton tower theme park, water park and hotel, otherwise called Alton Towers Resort. Given that the company seeks to move a branch to the Qatar, its SWOT analysis will be undertaken in view of making out its ability to sustain the move. Secondly, the research will constitute an external environmental analysis by use of the Qatar PESTLE analysis of the hotel industry. The swot analysis considers the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in an organization. In this case, the Alton Towers Resort has its own internal strengths as related to the external opportunities and threats. Given the resources at the resort, one of the strengths is that it has great experience in resort business that has run for the past one and a half centuries. Over the years, the company gained a lot of experience going by the way it responds to the changing market tastes and preferences (Altontowers, 2014, p. 2). The other Strength is that the place is renowned which gives it a world wide appeal. This attracts a very large number of revellers given its strong brand name and reputation. The other strength is that the company has a very wide collection of products and services. Over the years, the company has been inventing different new products of which the latest is the 2014 family area and there is additional live entertainment. The products range from tickets and prices, short breaks, rides and attractions, water parks, hotels and spa and other event offers. This is indicative of financial stability which is an added strength to the resort. One of the weaknesses of the company is that it has a very large work force. This issue is associated with the many services that the resort offers (theme park, Water Park and hotel), it is forced to employ a very large number of employees that highly contribute to use of its resources. This situation

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Reading Fluency and Its Effect on Reading Comprehension Essay Example for Free

Reading Fluency and Its Effect on Reading Comprehension Essay As an elementary teacher, I have often thought reading fluency plays a large role in a child’s reading development. Few reading programs give fluency the recognition it deserves. Reading fluency has been a prominent and reliable benchmark for me, even when students have comprehension difficulties. Once fluency is assessed, the results were used to place students in their reading ability group. Often times, the fluent readers were placed in the high ability reading groups. In the past, our district used a reading program that gave very little focus to reading fluency and few strategies for improvement. It assessed fluency based on rate and accuracy—not prosody. The previous reading series also failed to assess the students’ comprehension after they read independently. The non-fluent readers spent so much effort on word identification; it is difficult for them to enjoy reading the selection. I believe this is one reason they enjoy being read to. Students can comprehend a story when it is read aloud to them, but it is their lack of fluency that inhibits comprehension when it is their turn to read. A current goal in our school improvement plan is to improve reading fluency; therefore, in this review of literature, I will examine reading fluency by focusing on how it affects comprehension. Literature Review The attention given to reading fluency has fluctuated throughout the years in education. It is currently gaining recognition and once again becoming an advertised component in most reading programs. According to Avanchan (2010), fluency is a critical element of reading and should be taught in every school. This Literature Review will focus on the following research questions: 1. What is reading fluency? 2. What strategies can be used to improve reading fluency? 3. How does reading fluency affect reading comprehension? What is reading fluency? Reading fluency is defined as the ability to recognize words rapidly and accurately. Under the reading fluency umbrella, there are three main components of fluency: accuracy, rate, and prosody (Nathan Stanovich, 2001). Reading accuracy is the ability to decode and recognize words correctly. Without reading accuracy, a young reader cannot interpret the author’s intent (Evanchan, 2010). To be considered an accurate reader a student has a strong knowledge of the alphabetic principle, ability to blend letters, and a significant bank of high frequency words (Hudson, Lane, Pullen, 2005). Reading rate refers to the speed one can read at with fluidity (Evanchan, 2010). This component of reading fluency is often described as a reader’s automaticity. With automaticity, a reader can effortlessly identify words in text (Evanchan, 2010; Hudson et al. , 2005); however, accurate word recognition alone is not a strong indicator of fluency. Speed also needs to be heavily considered. (Evanchan, 2005). Hudson et al. (2005) describe prosody as â€Å"the music of oral language† (p. 704). Prosody is what makes a reader enjoyable to listen to, because it includes appropriate phrasing, intonation, stress patterns, and duration (Hudson et al. , 2005). Prosodic reading suggests the reader has connected to the literature and understands what is being read (Hudson et al. , 2005). What strategies can be used to improve reading fluency? Numerous strategies can be used to improve reading fluency (Evanchan, 2010). One strategy that continues to hold valor is repeated reading, which is when students continuously read the same passage until they have reached a level of fluency (Mastropieri, Leinart, Scruggs, 1999). Once they have reached the predetermined level of fluency, they move to a more difficult passage. Hudson et al. (2005) suggested repeated reading is highly recommended for improving of fluency because it concentrates on all components of fluency: accuracy, rate, and prosody. Reader’s theater is another strategy where children practice repeated reading (Evanchan, 2010). Reader’s theater brings a new, more exciting approach to repeated practice. Like repeated reading, reader’s theater focuses on all three elements of reading fluency. Reader’s theater requires students to reread, memorize, and perform the text, which are key components to improving fluency. Adding dramatic performance to a student’s reading experience will positively affect the student’s expression, or prosody, a key component to reading fluency (Nathan Stanovich, 2001). Modeling fluency is essential so students can better understand what reading fluency sounds like. Proper modeling focuses on accuracy, rate, phrasing, and prosody (Worthly Broaddus, 2001). Evanchan (2010) suggested proper modeling gives students exposure to vocabulary above their independent reading level. Modeling allows students to be engaged with text they may wrestle with independently, and comprehension is also enhanced (Worthly Broaddus, 2001). The student’s engagement and evidence of comprehension suggests students’ listening comprehension level is at a higher level than their independent reading levels (Evanchan, 2010). How does reading fluency affect reading comprehension? There are five essential components to reading. They are phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. Evanchan (2010), referred to the components as links in a chain, and comprehension is the link that secures the chain; however, if one of the four other components are missing, the ultimate goal of comprehension cannot be obtained. Before a higher level of reading can be obtained, a student must be able to decode the words in text (Nathan Stanovich, 2001). Without word recognition, a reader is likely to misinterpret the author’s intent. Misinterpreting the text can develop a barrier for comprehension (Hudson et al. , 2005). When looking at fluency on a larger scale, developing automaticity forms the bridge between reading fluency and comprehension. (Pikulski Chard, 2005). Although reading comprehension is not solely achieved through reading fluency, it certainly reflects upon it (2005). Automaticity and comprehension are intertwined and should not be separated during instructional modeling (2005). Doing so may affect the ultimate goal of developing meaningful responses to the text (Applegate, Applegate, Modla, 2009). Nathan and Stanovich (2001) and Hudson et al. (2005) agreed non-fluent readers have a difficult time focusing on comprehension because their cognitive capacity is limited, and they use all of their energy to decode words. Students who have efficient word identification and have achieved automaticity free up processing space so their cognitive resources can be used for comprehension and higher order thinking (Hudson et al. , 2005). Conclusion. There is a significant amount of information that acknowledges reading fluency’s effect on reading comprehension. Through automaticity and prosody, a bridge can be built between reading fluency and comprehension. Reading fluency needs to become an instructional focus in the classroom. While rate seems to get most of the focus, all three components of reading fluency need and deserve to be addressed equally. The earlier reading fluency strategies are administered, the greater chance the student has to becoming a reader who can respond to literature thoughtfully and with meaning, which is the ultimate goal. References Applegate, M. , Applegate, A. J. , Modla, V. B. (2009). Shes my best reader; She just cant comprehend: Studying the relationship between fluency and comprehension. Reading Teacher, 62(6), 512-521. doi:10. 1598/RT. 62. 6. 5 Evanchan, G. (2010). Fluency is a vital link in the comprehension chain. Ohio Reading Teacher, 40(1), 11-18. Retrieved from http://search. proquest. com/docview/577071584? accountid=28680 Hudson, R. F. , Lane, H. B. , Pullen, P. C. (2005). Reading fluency assessment and instruction: What, why, and how?. Reading Teacher, 58(8), 702-714. doi:10. 1598/RT. 58. 8. 1 Nathan, R. G. , Stanovich, K. E. (1991). The causes and consequences of differences in reading fluency. Theory Into Practice, 30(3), 176. Pikulski, J. J. , Chard, D. J. (2005). Fluency: Bridge between decoding and reading comprehension. Reading Teacher, 58(6), 510-519. Worthy, J. , Broaddus, K. (2001). Fluency beyond the primary grades: From group performance to silent, independent reading. Reading Teacher, 55(4), 334.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Acid Rain :: essays research papers fc

Acid Rain What is acid rain? Acid rain is not a recent phenomenon. In the 17th century, scientists noted the ill effects that industry and acidic pollution was having on vegetation and people. However, the term acid rain was not coined until two centuries later when Angus Smith published a book called 'Acid Rain' in 1872 ( Zumdahl 173). Acidic pollutants can be deposited from the atmosphere to the Earth's surface in wet and dry forms. The common term to describe this process is acid deposition. The term acid precipitation is used to specifically describe wet forms of acid pollution that can be found in rain, sleet, snow, fog, and cloud vapor. An acid can be defined as any substance that when dissolved in water dissociates to yield corrosive hydrogen ions. The acidity of a substances dissolved in water is commonly measured in terms of pH. According to this measurement scale solutions with pHs less than 7 are described as being acidic, while a pH greater than 7.0 is considered alkaline. Precipitation normally has a pH between 5.0 to 5.6 because of natural atmospheric reactions involving carbon dioxide. Precipitation is considered to be acidic when its pH falls below 5.6. Some sites in eastern North America have precipitation with pHs as low as 2.3 or about 1000 times more acidic than natural ( Zumdahl 171). One of the main causes of acid rain is sulphur dioxide. Natural sources, which emit this gas, are volcanoes, sea spray, rotting vegetation and plankton. However, the burning of fossil fuels, such as coal and oil, are largely to be blamed for approximately half of the emissions of this gas in the world. When sulphur dioxide reaches the atmosphere, it oxidizes to first form a sulphate ion. It then becomes sulphuric acid as it joins with hydrogen atoms in the air and falls back down to earth. Oxidation occurs mostly in clouds and especially in heavily polluted air where other compounds such as, ammonia and ozone help to catalyze the reaction, converting more sulphur dioxide to sulphuric acid. One of the direct effects of acid rain is on lakes and its aquatic ecosystems. There are several routes through which acidic chemicals can enter the lakes. Some chemical substances exist as dry particles in the air while others enter the lakes as wet particles such as rain, snow, sleet, hail, dew or fog. In addition, lakes can almost be thought of as the "sinks" of the earth, where rain that falls on land is drained through the sewage systems eventually makes their way into the lakes.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Natural law approach Essay

â€Å"Natural law is the most reliable approach when making judgements about sex and relationships.† Discuss. (35 marks) When either evaluating or disusing this statement we must first consider the main teachings of natural law. For instance; natural law focuses very much on the purpose the potential and the actuality of things and events. It also talks of and attributes these three things to human beings in particular natural looks at the purpose of human beings. Natural contains two types of precepts, one being primary precepts, these are in natural law precepts in which are always true and they are the fundamental principles of natural law and there are five primary precepts including; the preservation of life, reproduction, education of the young, living peacefully in society and worship god. The second type of precepts are the secondary precepts these are worked out from the primary precepts and are hence dependent of our own judgements and therefore clearly differ from the primary precepts. Natural law is an absolute law, in which is true on all situations and times. Natural law is a deontological, in other words a ethical system in which considers that the moral act itself has moral value, for instance telling the truth is always right even when it might cause pain or harm. Although Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) is given the name as the founder of natural law, natural law owes lots of its existence to Aristotle (384-BCE). As for it was Aristotle who originally had the idea that people like every other natural objects have specific nature purpose and function and then later Aquinas linked these ideas with that of the teachings of the Catholic church. Even still to this day natural law is a basic for Roman Catholic teachings and beliefs. When dealing with the idea of judgements relating to sex and relationships there is many points which need to be given consideration. For instance sexual morality, so here we shall consider how we should all show concern to good and bad in relation to sexual relations. For instance we must consider the following; sex as procreative, sex within marriage and premarital sex, homosexuality and contraception. All of which are ideas and elements in which have to be taken account for, especially when making judgements about sex and relationships. Sex as procreation, is something in which is a very historical view of sex. Sex as procreation is the exact feeling in which natural law has towards sex and relationships as; the purpose of sex according to natural law is to procreate. Natural law believes very strongly also in the idea of sex before marriage, as natural law states that in order for a couple to have sex with one another they must first be married this is also what is believed in the terms of the catholic church. As we can see here again how natural law is in fact the bases for so many of the catholic churches ideas beliefs and teachings. As natural agrees and states that people should be in a marriage before having sex, this forms the idea that natural law does not agree with the suggestion or the act of premarital sex. Homosexuality is another issue in which is nearly always raised within the topic of sex and relationships. As natural law’s perspectives are very similar to that of the Roman Catholic churches, we can state that the view in which these both hold is that one in which states that to have sexual inclinations towards someone of your sex is not a sin but to act on these inclinations would be wrong. Within natural there is also the main statement in which says that sex has to be done in order to create a child. So although sex is said to be allowed to be for pleasurable, the main purpose always has to be an intention to have a baby from it. Hence homosexual couples will not follow this rule when having sex with one another as for this impossible for them and hence natural law is against same couple sex as this can never result in the birth of a baby. Contraception is a very controversial topic. Natural law is against the fundamental principle of contraception (stopping a child being conceived). Contraception quite simply goes against one of natural law’s five principles; reproduction, therefore natural law is against any form of contraception, so too is the Catholic Church. Natural law believes that we should not have the power as humans to interfere with Gods work and as child and babies are his work for us to use contraception we would be interfering with his work, hence why contraception is not something in which natural law agrees with. There are many reasons and examples as to why some may see natural law as the most reliable approach when making judgements about sex and relationships. For instance it is universal, so applies in all situations and there can be no misunderstandings or wrong interpretations along the way as this is a universal clear cut approach. Some will also argue that this is a god given approach as the statements in which have become the rule and teachings/beliefs of natural law often come from the bible also not forgetting that natural law has very strong religious ties with the catholic church and hence many will argue that the fact that natural law is a god given approach, in many people’s eyes, will mean that for many this makes it the best approach. Another reason as to why natural law is the best approach is because it does have very strong beliefs as to when it comes to relationships and these strong views in some people’s minds mean that it is a reliable and good approach to use when in the dilemma of relationship questions. However this may not be the case for everyone, as some will see natural law as out of date in general and this aspect of being out of date shines through for lots of people in the views in which natural law shows towards sex and relationships. For example; of sex before marriage being one of these views. For some this idea in which natural law is out of date will mean that for them natural law really isn’t the best approach especially when making judgements about sex and relationships. Also, we must consider here that natural may also for many seem inflexible. Back to the point made earlier which is that natural law is absolute law, in which is true on all situations and times. Although for many this is the exact reason or one of them for why the like natural law this is also for many a negative point of natural law. As it means that natural law is inflexible, and hence some might argue that natural law being inflexible means that it is not the best approach to use, especially in this situation when we are dealing with a the sensitive topic of sex and relationships. In a question like this one we must make sure that we have a clear cut idea of what all the words mean to make sure that everyone is really making the best judgements about whether or not natural law is the most reliable approach when making judgements about sex and relationships. In this question the word in which we need to make sure we have to know what we mean by it is, reliable. To me reliable means that we can trust it, for an approach to be seemed as reliable, to me that means that we can trust all of what the approach has to say on the topic in which it has been said to have been reliable when making judgements on. Reliable in this context I think can also be associated with being fair and a view in which we can all take and all be happy taking. This theory may seem reliable I believe from the perspective of someone who is religious and especially catholic and the views are very similar. This approach may also seem reliable to a person with the perspective that there should be set rules in life and that life is very clean cut and black and white. Someone with the perspective that life needs set rules and regulations and that these rules and regulations should be fixed and set and little of any flexibility. However, this theory may seem not reliable to those who believe that there can’t be absolutes in terms of personal relationships. For instance these people who think like this may argue, are there really absolutes when it comes to personal relationships? As we all know that no relationship is ever the same as no person is ever the same and hence these people may well argue that for such reasons like these that there just can’t be absolutes in situations really involving people and emotions, in which are both a big part of the topic situation e.g. relationships. However, some who believe strongly in natural law will disagree, no doubt and will argue that there can be absolutes in terms of personal relationships and they may argue that everything in life can have and should have absolutes. And one rule in which applies in one aspect of life and surely then be applied to all aspects of life. Those who argue that there can’t really be absolutes in terms of personal relationships might say that other theories due to this are more reliable. For instance, they might put forward Kant or utilitarianism as being more reliable. This could be because they are seen as being more flexible theories. Especially utilitarianism, as utilitarianism is a teleological theory, one in which argues that moral actions are right or wrong depending on their out as opposed to natural law which is not a teleological theory and is a deontological theory instead therefore is a theory in which is not very flexible and is a theory which is based on moral rules and whether action itself is right or wrong. To conclude, â€Å"Natural law is the most reliable approach when making judgements about sex and relationships†, is a statement in which really depends on your personal views.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Leadership and Organizational Behavior Essay

Armor Valley Services (AVS), LLC is a company that provides programs that are specifically developed to meet the needs of anyone who qualifies for hospice care, personal care or homemaker programs, from the simplest custodial care to the most complexes concern. They recognize ease the emotional, physical and financial strains imposed upon the client and family. AVS is focused on building a working environment where people are better able to succeed. It encourages achievement with personal triumph as a major contributor to success. With this culture being at the top we are able to introduce a friendly virus within the organization. People are aligned to common goals and objectives to help with safety awareness. Even though, more training is needed to help accomplish this, the members all have a common direction of taking care of the client’s needs. These results indicate that my organization is dedicated to the members actively support each other to identify problems and find workable solutions. I am a Personal Care-giver, as such, I conduct services such as bathing, cleaning, preparing meals, sitting with clients and assisting them with the daily needs of life. I have been working part-time with AVS since September of 2009. The problems observed are the lack of training and personal care given to the individual patient. Most of the patients are elderly or unable to do for themselves. So we have to take the extra step to make them feel needed and want to give that extra push to live. Also untrained personnel can cause someone to lose their life. Even though this is a small upcoming business all precautions should be taken to ensure safety first. This is a very important aspect for me, because I don’t want anyone hurt from a lack of knowing. Other problems observed, is the lack of work for the personnel. If you don’t have enough patients for a worker, why hire another person to work and you are giving both workers part-time work. On the other hand, I understand why because it keeps the employer from having to provide any benefits. Preliminary Problem Statement AVS does not have enough well-trained employees for this type of job. We are dealing with elderly clients that have a multitude of problems. We are not trained in medical emergencies, to include CPR. I have abreast myself in ensuring that I have just the basics of CPR and the knowledge to know when emergency assistance is needed. Having untrained employees can cause risk, law suits and cause someone to lose their life. AVS also is trying to cut down their cost by not providing sufficient hours to their workers. Having insufficient hours can cause a big turnover and lack of enthusiasm in your workers. With these working conditions, how can the worker efficiently do their job; how can the clients get the best possible service; and how can the company retain and maintain the best possible work ethics, if their main focus is on cost effectiveness? The TCO’s my problem is related to are B- given the influence of factors such as values, attitudes, beliefs, feelings, and personality on individual behavior, demonstrate how knowledge of individual difference factors to help in understanding, predicting, and influencing individual behavior and C- given the array of theories of motivation, demonstrate their application to successfully guide employees toward accomplishing organizational objectives.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Catenary Spaces and Planar Spa essays

Catenary Spaces and Planar Spa essays Working with the merged sensibilities of a sculptor, a photographer, an architect, and a builder, Timothy Makepeace orchestrates structure, design, light and shadow into elegant works deeply indebted to the basic principles of modernism. He is drawn to the inner bodies of buildings. Their skeletons and innards inspire him because they are generally hidden from the publics gaze under the skin of the edifice. It is precisely these hidden elements to which he directs our attention. Although reductivist in his visual vocabulary, Makepeace does not consider himself a classic minimalist sculptor. A closer look at the works in this exhibition reveals his observation of complex architectural structures and his abstracting of their complexity into controlled aesthetic simplicity. Equally important are his memories of certain places, particularly those whose existence has become marginalized by the progress of history. Old massive bridges and bypasses forged of steel from forgotten mill towns provide him poetic source material. The industrial landscape holds special appeal because it "stands with its structure clearly revealed, its engineering laid bare, and its functions wholly evident."1 Makepeace spends time photographing these places, such as under the Pulaski Skyway Bridge in New Jersey, absorbing their sounds, smells, textures and visual presences. This nostalgia for the essence of place imbues the sculptures with a particularly humanist spirit. Makepeaces sensitivity to visual environment may stem from a childhood spent in many different countries. His mother is an artist, and his father was a Foreign Service officer who developed an interest in modern art in the 1940s and 50s. Living in Barcelona, his father befriended Joan Mir and met many of the Spanish modernists before they became internationally famous. As a result of these friendships, the household was filled with p ...

Monday, November 4, 2019

Application of Auditing Theory and Practice

Auditing is part of organizational management, it is explained as the process of examining the financial reports of a business enterprise as presented in the business annual reports, an independent person or an organization performs the audit process. The progression and development of organizational performance is accomplished by conducting audit and understanding the auditing theory and related practices  (Arens, et al., 2012). Auditing is also outlined as the systemic and unbiased examination of organizations books of accounts, statutory information, documents and vouchers of an organization to visualize how some distance the economic statements further to non-economic disclosures present genuine and fair view of the business enterprise  (Eilifsen, et al., 2013). Auditing and compliance practices try ensure that the organizational financial books are effectively maintained as required by the international auditing standard board, and if they are maintained under the regulation provided by the existing laws. Auditing independence is outlined as the independence of the external and internal auditor from other parties and individuals who may have economic and financial interest in the business enterprise that is being audited. According to Arens, Elder, & Mark 2012, the auditors indepence requires integrity and essential audit measure to the auditing procedures. The study reveals that, some factors may affect the integrity and auditing measures and process of an auditor  (Arens, et al., 2012). On the other hand, the auditors integrity is also affected by the business risk, these risk influence the decisional making process of auditors and top organizational management. However, auditing practices compel the auditor to put into actions and measures which might be crucial even as performing the practices. Auditing planning is the strategic management degree for auditing, it carried out at the beginning of the audit process this is to make sure that the correct attention is fermented to important areas, to sure that the capacity issues are promptly identified and viable solutions are generated to lessen the impact  (Elder, et al., 2011). The main purpose of encouraging the audit planning is to ensure that all the audit work are fully finished and coordinated. Clarke & Johnson (CJI) is an audit company this is identified for proving the first-rate services in the audit business enterprise; Luxury Travel Holidays LTD (LTH) is commercial enterprise that provides travel service. Both corporations have taken into consideration the importance of market segmentation and diversifying their enterprise operation far from their nearby market. Clarke & Johnson (CJI) Company is re-engaged by Luxury Travel Holidays LTD (LTH) to offer audit services before submitting their 30 June 2015 financial report to the stakeholders. The factors affecting the integrity and auditing approach used by the auditors could affect decision-making process  (Gay & Simnett, 2000). Qualified and non-qualified audit opinion is the relevant concepts that are used to draft the audit report. This is a primary factor affecting the independence and the decisions to be reached by an auditor.   The size if the audit firm implies the size of the business enterprise to be audited and the particular auditing firm. According to this case study, Clarke & Johnson (CJI) Company is an audit firm that has been providing audit services to small market the company is also to provide its services to Luxury Travel Holidays LTD (LTH) that performs its business activities in Asia, Europe and U.S market. The larger the audit firm the lesser the impact of impairments, the smaller the audit company there will be more factors that will affect the independence of the audit company  (Eilifsen, et al., 2001). This is amongst the dangerous threats which might the independence of the audit company. The advising threat implies that, some stakeholders may have the economic and financial interest in the company to be audited. According to the case study, Clarke & Johnson (CJI) Company and Luxury Travel Holidays LTD (LTH) have been collaborating for years this could build some interest between themselves  (Jackson, 2016). Therefore, the auditor is compelled to present audit opinion that favors the stakeholder who has economic and commercial interest. The threats regarding the referrals from the customer impacts the independence of an auditor. Clarke & Johnson (CJI) Company is an audit firm that has been offering audit services to Luxury Travel Holidays LTD (LTH); Luxury Travel Holidays LTD (LTH) may make many referrals to the auditor, and thus affecting the audit process and of the Clarke & Johnson (CJI) Company. The organizational control has an excessive impact on the audit opinion to be made with the aid of the usage of the auditor, the organizational pinnacle ought to affect this critiques in view that they may pressure the auditor to utilize the referrals made. Luxury Travel Holidays LTD (LTH) and Clarke & Johnson (CJI) Company had been participating for more than one years. Luxury Travel Holidays LTD (LTH) may want to refer the accounting department to make adjustments to company book of accounts, those changes and adjustment made are ought to affect the findings of the auditor and thus the audit independence is automatically affected. The success of every operating business organization is determined by the extent and how the company is involved in the audit practices. The independence of the auditors should not be influence since they impose some negative effects to the findings that are used as the basis of the audit opinion which is the primary element of audit report. The size of the firm is categories to be the threat that affects the auditor independence, the organizational management of Luxury Travel Holidays LTD (LTH) should consider the size of the firm that will perform the audit practices. Consequently, Clarke & Johnson (CJI) Company should ensure that they create and implement policies that will limit threats affecting their independence. Advising threats is a fatal component that influences the independence of an auditor. The relevant audit opinion to be utilized by an auditor ought to be based totally on the instantaneous findings. The auditors are advocated not to provide any economic or financial cautioned to their clients because their findings after the recommendation will have an impact on the audit opinion  (Knechel & Salterio, 2016). Multiple referrals could also affect the auditor's opinion. According to the case study both business enterprises have been in business for a number of years, Luxury Travel Holidays LTD (LTH) could make referrals to the finance department to make the adjustment to some vouchers and documents, this is to present the interest of some management individuals. Clients are advised not to make any referrals to any departments, the exact finding of the auditor portrays that the organization needs to implement on some applicable measures. According to Gay, & Simnett, 2000, audit planning is strategic control measure for auditing, it conducted at the beginning of the audit procedure this is to make sure that the right interest is fermented to essential organizational areas. This is to ascertain that the potential problems are promptly recognized and viable solution are generated to reduce their impact, to make sure that all auditing work is completed and coordinated. While developing and creating the audit practices, there are some elements that may affect the auditing procedures  (Lyon & Maher, 2005). Clarke & Johnson Company and Luxury Travel Holidays LTD (LTH) are now taken into consideration to function in new markets. New markets are bounded and guided by means of commercial laws and regulations which are surpassed through the federal governments  (Knechel & Salterio, 2016). Consequently, the organizations that operate outside their nearby market are affected by the legal processes that are used to regulate the business enterprises when it comes to their commercial activities. U.S Common Laws are the examples of the commercial law that are used to guide organization business activities U.S and European market  (Johnstone, 2000). Economic threat is the primary external environmental factor that impacts the operations business corporation in international markets. They incorporate elements such as GDP and unique country financial improvement quotes. Some markets are affected by down-tuning economic developments, currencies also affect the activities of a business organization. For instance, U.S currency is a globally accepted currency, it is used in the international market for the exchange of goods and services  (Sadgrove, 2016). According to Jackson 2016, the declining in product demand is a marketing factor originating aftermarket segmentation and diversification. Operating in an expanded marketplace place create a room for more corporations to create products and services which resemble the ones produced by using the existing organizations  (Jackson, 2016). Companies operating in the broader market are advocated to ensure that they produce quality products and services that meet the competitive market they operate in. According to Johnstone 2000, financial dangers chance contains those monetary aspects that stand up because of lack of monetary management procedures and measures. The economic worldwide marketplace has experienced many issues that have affected the operation of commercial enterprise companies, mainly Crampton and Hasaad and Mining Supplies LTD (MSL) corporations  (Johnstone, 2000). The research conducted by Knechel 2007 concluded that the financial contributes to the economic failures of a company that operates internationally  (Knechel & Salterio, 2016). Inherent audit risk is the risk that involves the material misstatement in the financial statement of an institution arising due to errors and omission (Kachelmeier, et al., 2014)made as a result of failing to implement on specific controls and measures. The impact of inherent audit to a business organization are felt when the companies operating in specific market fails to implement on the existing financial measures and controls  (Ricchiute, 2001). These risks are perceived to be generated when the business organization failed to make application estimation while making complex transactions. The control risk comprises the threats originating from the fabric misstatement existing within financial reporting of the company, this fabric misstatement is experience due to failure to work under the financial policies and measure of the organization  (Bell, et al., 2001). Crampto and Hasaad and Mining Supplies LTD (MSL) are advocated to have the applicable financial internal control measure, this measure is relevant in preventing and reducing frauds originating from the internal business transactions  (William Jr, et al., 2016). According to Bell, Landsman, & Shackelford 200, the detection risk is that risk that arises when the external auditor fails to come over the cloth misstatement in the financial information of the company, vouchers, assets and other relevant documents  (Bell, et al., 2001). While implementing the audit planning, the auditor is encouraged to focus on the relevant financial and documents of the company and provide the solution to the financial misstatement. The business organizations are advocated to make use of the audit measures that will reduce the fabric misstatements in the financial statements and asset documents of an enterprise that ought to be audited. Eilifsen, Knechel, & Wallage 2001, concluded that, while mitigating the dectecion risks, the audit company is recommended to increase and take the variety of sample transactions  (Eilifsen, et al., 2001). In conclusion, auditing is explained as part of the managing a business organization, it is the independent examination of the company financial reports, this is to assure that the financial information of the business organization shows true and fair view of the company. The audit opinion is a relevant element of audit report as presented by the external auditor. Some aspects affect the independence of an external auditor, these aspects comprise multiple referrals, size of the firm and advising threat. Business risk is defined as the primary factors that affect the business organization, especially those which are operating in the international market. Legal risk, financial risks, economic risks and declining in the product demand are the examples of the business risk addressed in the paper. Inherent risk, detection risk, and control risk are the examples of audit risk affecting the auditor practices. Arens, A. A., Elder, R. J. & Mark, B., 2012. Auditing and assurance services: an integrated approach:. Boston: Prentice Hall.. Bell, T. B., Landsman, W. R. & Shackelford, D. A., 2001. Auditors' perceived business risk and audit fees: Analysis and evidence.. Journal of Accounting research,, 39(1), pp. 35-43. Eilifsen, A., Messier, W. F., Glover, S. M. & Praw, 2013. Auditing and assurance services.. s.l.:McGraw-Hill.. Eilifsen, A., Knechel, W. R. & Wallage, P., 2001. Application of the business risk audit model: A field study. Accounting Horizons. s.l.:s.n. Elder, R. J., Beasley, M. S. & Arens, A., 2011. Auditing and Assurance services. s.l.:Pearson Higher Ed.. Gay, G. E. & Simnett, R., 2000. Auditing and assurance services in Australia.. Sydney: Mcgraw-hill. Jackson, R. A., 2016. Business at risk: keynote speakers for this year's IIA International Conference identify emerging risks facing organizations. Internal Auditor,. In: s.l.:s.n., pp. 40-46. Johnstone, K., 2000. Client-acceptance decisions: Simultaneous effects of client business risk, audit risk, auditor business risk, and risk adaptation. Auditing:. A Journal of Practice & Theory, 19(1), pp. 1-25.. Kachelmeier, S. J., Majors, T. & Williamson, M. G., 2014. Does Intent Modify Risk-Based Auditing?. The Accounting Review. s.l.:s.n. Knechel, W., 2007. The business risk audit: Origins, obstacles and opportunities.. In: s.l.:s.n., pp. 383-408. Knechel, W. R. & Salterio, S. E., 2016. Auditing: assurance and risk. s.l.:Routledge. Lyon, J. D. & Maher, M. W., 2005. The importance of business risk in setting audit fees: Evidence from cases of client misconduct.. Journal of Accounting Research, 43(1), pp. 133-151. Messier, w. f., 2014. An approach to learning risk-based auditing.. Journal of Accounting Education, 32(3), pp. 276-287. Ricchiute, D. N., 2001. Auditing and assurance services.. s.l.:South Western Educational Publishing.. Sadgrove, K., 2016. The complete guide to business risk management.. s.l.:Routledge. William Jr, M., Glover, S. & Prawitt, D., 2016. Auditing and assurance services: A systematic approach.. s.l.:McGraw-Hill Education.

Saturday, November 2, 2019

Hills like White Elephants Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Hills like White Elephants - Essay Example It is evidently clear from the discussion that most common aspect of Ernest Hemingway’s writings is extraordinary complexity. He presented the themes in a very complex manner, for instance, we can notice the underlying story â€Å"Hills like White Elephants†. In the story, several themes are used such as stressful romance, undesired pregnancy, communication collapse between the couple that further became a cause of the pregnancy abortion (tragedy) and symbolism (hills, elephants etc.). Hemingway utilized numerous literary devices to communicate the themes of the story but here I am going to analyze three out of those: imagery, dialogue and narrative style used in the story. The simplest form of imagery used in the underlying story. Simplicity is reported because Hemingway did not use the complete form of imagery to elaborate the stylistic themes of the story; rather he drew the beauty by incomplete imagery. Hemingway illustrated that unsaid is more influential compared to what is expressed especially in the fiction writing. The writer has described that the hills were white but he did not express the reason for this color: whether the hills are white because of winter season snow or the rocks were naturally white? He left the imagination over the readers accordingly. This implies to the implicit complexity in the story. In the same way, it can be derived that hills are denoted as the curved in a woman that is., breasts and swelled belly of the woman because of pregnancy.

Thursday, October 31, 2019

Culture CompetenceMOdel Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Culture CompetenceMOdel - Essay Example Once this awareness is there, a nurse can develop skills which let him/her understand how the patient views the treatment being given and how they can be made to participate in the process of regaining their health. For example, with culturally aware skills, a nurse may be able to give an addict the right kind of motivation which lets the addict recover quickly. Additionally, as these skills are developed by nurses, the nurse gains knowledge about cultures and cultural aspects which are relevant to the profession of nursing which even include the understanding of why some people may associate illness with supernatural causes (Campinha-Bacote, 2001). Thus knowledge becomes the binding factor of cultural competence since the more knowledge a nurse has about culture and how culture affects the patient; the more able the nurse will be in handling cultural issues. Without this knowledge, a nurse would show incompetence when dealing with different cultures and this incompetence can be conscious or unconsciously produced (Campinha-Bacote, 2001). On the other hand, with the right knowledge about cultural competence, a nurse would show conscious competence about culture. This competence or incompetence would become evident in cultural encounters which put the nurse in contact with people from different backgrounds. These encounters can be difficult to deal with and may even cause discomfort for some nurses. However, those who are aware of cultural differences and those who have developed the skills to deal with different cultures may find them to be positive learning experiences rather than difficult to deal with situations (Campinha-Bacote, 2001). In fact, such nurses may even thrive on cultural encounters since they can be seen as opportunities to improve skills. All these factors are enclosed within the desire of the nurse to become better at dealing with people from different cultures and without this desire, no amount of skill or

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 11

Management - Essay Example Mergers of existing power player like Vodafone and Hochstein also made the situation more vulnerable for entrants, thus making them mighty and unbeatable. For better hold on coverage, working in collaboration with government is highly beneficial for entrants (ZDNet Australia). Due to substantial growth in the industry over a decade, industry has reached a level of saturation. Therefore, there is a considerable decline in prices and rise in number of buyers. They include kids from 12 years of age to adults 0f 60 years. Buyers are driving force for providers; in order to keep them loyal Miller Ltd. needs to provide and edge in price for competitive advantage. Mobile service industry in Australia is multiple sectors. In a flourishing industry like Australian telecommunication, monopoly can’t survive is today’s market. Market is diverse which include manufacturing of hardware, carriage service providers (CSPs), content service providers and retailers. The report by Economic access and ATMA briefly describe the market. Ericsson Australia, Nokia Siemens and Alcatel-Lucent are infrastructure provider in hardware sector. Nokia, Samsung, LG, i-Mate have market in consumer goods. CSPs provide services by utilizing carrier network infrastructure and have different levels; mobile telecommunication carriers in Australia are; Telstra, Vodafone, Optus, and Hutchison’s ‘3’ and Orange. Resellers services include; Primus Mobile, AAPT, Virgin mobile, B Digital, DigiPlus, Sim Plus, People TelecomM8 Telecom and Dodo Mobile. MVNOs or Mobile Virtual Network Operators are basically wholesalers and provide value adding services.B Digital, Revolution, People telecom Primus Telecom and Boost Mobile are a few to name. Content service providers, aggregators and program developers are other dimensions of service providers; Legion Interactive, Touch and Infospace are main content aggregators. CSPs have their own retailers like Hutchison ’s ‘3’ but other