Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Prevention of Hypertension in Adult Population of America Essay

Prevention of Hypertension in Adult Population of America - Essay Example The measurement of blood pressure is a complex topic, and there is also no exact differentiation between individuals 'at risk' from blood pressure-associated morbidity and mortality, and rest of the population. Adequate treatment of High Blood Pressure (HBP) with strict adherence to regimen, better prescribing and compliance, and regular follow-up is expected to reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular episodes. However, literature reviews suggest that healthcare outcomes and patient compliance are not up to the expected level due to several barriers to the successful diagnosis, treatment, and control of hypertension encountered by healthcare providers and lack of compliance by patients with hypertension. Research findings also suggest that there is disagreement among physicians regarding definitions of hypertension, and confusion over medications for BP control. As such, it is essential to maintain uniformity in research standards and clinical approaches to improve the quality o f care for controlling patient's blood pressure and introduce nurse-led blood pressure management initiative, to attain the goals of Healthy People as envisaged. Hypertension is prevalent in "28% of the US population and 35% of the African American population. However, only 1 in 4 patients with hypertension are controlled to a blood pressure of less than 140/90 mm Hg." (Wright et al, 2002, p.1636-1643). Cross-sectional analysis of national representative data by Wang & Wang (2004), conforming to new classification of blood pressure levels by Joint National Committee (JNC) on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure report (JNC 7 Report published in 2003), found that "elevated blood pressure is a serious problem in the United States. Approximately 60% of American adults have pre-hypertension or hypertension, and some population groups, such as African Americans, older people, low-socioeconomic-status groups, and overweight groups, are disproportionately affected." (Wang & Wang, 2004, p.2126-2134). African Americans develop hypertension at a young age and it is more prevalent than whites. The low control of hyper tension rates in the United States is attributed to "inappropriate or inadequate treatment, non-adherence with medical regimen, intake of exogenous substances that interfere with the antihypertensive regimen, biologic factors associated with resistance, and secondary forms of hypertension." (Wright et al, 2002, p.1636-1643). Analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) for 1999-2002 by CDC found that "proportion with controlled BP was similar among non-Hispanic blacks (29.8%) and non-Hispanic whites (29.8%), but substantially lower among Mexican Americans (17.3%)," which demonstrate continuing racial and ethnic disparities in the prevalence of hypertension and in the percentage of those with HBP who are aware of, are being treated for, and are in control of their condition. (Racial/Ethnic disparities in prevalence, treatment, and control of hypertension-United States, 1999-2002, 2005, P.923-925). Since High Blood Pressure (HBP) usually has no signs or symptoms the National Heal

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